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Thebe is certainlj no familj to which the bardic literature 
of Ireland is raore deeply indebted than that of O'Da^. Ac- 
cording to O'Elahertj (Ogygia, part III., c. 85,) they are of 
the race of Maine, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages, and are 
of the same stock as the Eoxes, the Magawleys, the O'Breens 
and O'Quins of Teathbha or Teffia in Westmeath. In 
O'Dugan's Topographical Poem the O'Da^s are aiso set down 
as of Teffia in Westmeath and chiefs of Corca-Adam in that 
territorj. Duald Mac Eirbis and Peregrine 0'Clery have 
given the descent of the 0'Daly's from Eearghal (son of 
Maelduin of the race of Eoghan, son of Niall of the Nine 
Hostages), who was lord of Cinel-Eoghain in 718; but Mac 
Eirbis observes, that he does not believe that 0'Daly is 
of this descent, though he transcribes the Genealogy as he found 
it in a modern compilation; and he refers to the family elsewhere 
as of the race of Maine, son of Niall, and as of Corca-Adam 
in Teffia; and this is undoubtedlv the true descent. Duald 
Mac Eirbis who seems to have compared various MSS. con- 
taining O'Dalv's pedigree, gives the line (p. 132.) from Dalach, 
son of Eachtna, son of Corc, son of Adan or Adhamh, a quo 
Corca-Adain, or Corca-Adhaimh, as follows : — 

1. Adan or Adhamh, a quo Corca Adain, or Corca-Adhaimh. 

2. Corc. 


3. Eachtna. 

4. Dalach, a quo O'Dalaigh or 0'Daly. 

5. Gilla-coimhdheadh. 


6. Tadhg. 

7. Muireadhach. 


8. Dalach. 

9. Cuchonnacht na Sgoile of Leckin, nearBimbrusna in Teffia, 

| Ard-Ollamh in poetry, who died at Clonard, in 1139. 

10. Tadhg Doichleach. 

11. Aenghus, the common ancestor of all the O'Dal/s extant. 

12. Cearbhall 12. Donnchadh Mor 
Fionn, ancestor of the 

ancestorof ODaly'sof Finny- 
O'Dalaigh vara and of Dun- 
Fionn, sandle, 1244. 

poet to the 

O'ReeíFeof 13. Aenghus. 

Co. Cork. 14. Donnchadh 

I I 

12. Muireadhach, 12. Gilla-Isa, 
of Lissadill fl. 

12, Cormac-na Casbhairne, 

15. Aenghus R uadh,d. 1350. 
1_ __l 

16. Tadhg, d. 1367. 

17. Fearghal, chief 
poet of Corcomroe, 

fl. 1420. 

Lochlainn d. 

16. Donn. 

17. Doighre. 

18. Donn. 


20. John. 


21. Tadhg. 

22. Diarmaid. 

23. Aedh or 
Hugh 0'Daly, 
of Finny vara. 

12. Gilla-na-naemh, 12. Tadhg. 

13. Tadhg. 

14. Maelisa. 

15. Gilla-Isa. 

16. Anghus. 

17. Cuchonnacht. 

18. Muircheartach, 
d. 1466. 

19.Donnchadh, and 
six other sons. 

13. Cear- 
d. 1245. 

14. Tadhg, 
of Conn- 


15. Cuch- 

16. Aen- 

13. Cearbhall 
Finn, ances- 
tor of 0'Daly 
of Breifne. 

14. CearbhaU 
Breifneach . 

15. Conchobhar. 

16. N'iall. 

17. Maelseach- 

18. fcearbhall. 

19. A'edh. 

20. vhlliam. 

21. jóhn 0'Daly, 
of Breifne, 

d. 1490. 
ancestor of 
John 0'Daly, 
of 9, Anglesea- 

* Whose relationship to the O'Dalvs of Breifne stands thus:— 
Donnell G'Daly of the Breifne sept of this family migrated from 
Ballinamuck, Countj of Longford, about A.D. 1730; and settled at 

From this Genealogical Table it is elear that Cuchonnacht 
0'Daly, surnamed " na Sgoile" (i. e. of the School), who died 
at Clonard in the year 1139, was the ancestor of all the O'Daljs 
of Ireland, who followed the Bardic Profession. In the year 
1185, died on his pilgriinage at Clonard, Maehsa O'Dúj, 
lord of Corca-Adaim and Corca-Eaoidhe in Westmeath ; he 
was " chief poet of Eire and Alba, and a man illustrious for 
his nobility, poetry, and hospitality." (Fonr Masters), 

In the year 1213, we fmd that Muireadhach or Murray 
0'Daly, the great grandson of this Cuchonnacht na Sgoile, 
was seated at Lios-an-Doill, or Lissadill, in the territory of 
Carbury, in the north of the present County of Sligo, where 

Ballyhack, County of Wexford, where he got married and had 
issúe, viz, — 

Maurice, who remained at Ballyhack, and Donnell (whom we can- 
not further trace), settled at Hacketstown, Old Parish, County of 
Waterford, about 1760. 

Maurice had issue, four sons ; viz. James, John, William, and 

James settled at Knockroe, parish of Rilgobnet, County of 
Waterford, in the year 1796, and married Mary Yeale, by whom 
he had issue, three sons and six daughters. 

John settled at Durrow, parish of Modeligo, County of Waterford, 
in 1 797 ; and married Mary Keon, by whom he had issue, four 
sons and three daughters. 

William died unmarried. 

Edmund (the father of John 0'Daly,) settled at Farnane, parish of 
Modeligo, Countv of Waterford, in the year 1798 ; and in 1799, 
married Bridget Kyley of Kilbryan, same County ; by whom he 
had issue : — 

I. John (of 9, Anglesea-st), born in 1800. II, Maurice, born in 
1803. III. Mary, born 1806. IV. James, born in 1808. 
V. Bridget, born in 1810, VI. Ellen, born in 1819. 

John married (lst)in 1827,Ellen Shea of Dungournev, County of 

Cork, (who died in 1849) by whom he had issue : 

I. Mary, Born in 1828. Died in 1834. 
II. Edmund,Born in 1830. Died in 1836. 

III. John, Born (December), 1831. Living. 

IV. Denis, Born in 1833. Died in 1838. 
V. Mary, Born in 1835. Died in 1838 

VI. William, Born in 1836. Died. 
VII. Edmund, Born in 1837. Living. 
VIII. Ellen, Born in 1839. Living. 
IX. Laurence, Born in 1842. Living. 

X. Kate, Born in 1844. Lmng. 
Married (2nd) in 1850, Mary Murphy, alias Griffith, by whom he 
has issue : — 

Elizabeth, Born in 1851, Living. 

lie resided ín the capacity of poet to the chief of that district. 
The Tour Masters have preserved the following anecdote of 
him, in which the great power of their favourite chieftain, 
O'Donnell, is conspicuously set forth. 

"A.D , 1213, Fionn O'Brollaghan, steward to O'Donnell 
(Donnell Mor), went to Connacht to collect O'Donnell's rent. 
He first repaired to Carbury of Drumcliff, where with his atten- 
dants he visited the house of the poet Muireadhach 0'Daly of 
Lios-an-Doill, and being a churle servant of a hero, he began 
to abuse the poet very rnuch (although his lord had given him 
no instructions to do so) . The poet becoming enraged at his 
conduct, seized a sharp axe, and dealt him a blow which 
killed him on the spot; and then to avoid O'Donnell, he 
fled into Clanrickard. When O'Donnell received intelligence 
of this, he collected all his forces, and pursued him to Doire- 
Ui-Dhomhnaill (Derrydonnell) in Clanrickard, — a place which 
was named from him, because he encamped there for a night ; 
and he proceeded to burn and plunder tlie countrv, until at 
last the son of William submitted to him, having previously 
sent Muireadhach to seek for protection in Thomond. 
O'Donnell pursued him, and proceeded to plunder and ravage 
that country also, until Donough Cairbreach O'Brien sent 
Muireadhach away to the people of Limerick. O'Donnell 
followed him to the gate of Lhnerick, and pitching his camp 
at Moin-Ui-Dhomhnaill (which was named from him), laid 
siege to the town ; and the inhabitants at O^DonnelFs com- 
mand expelled Muireadhach, who found no asylum any where, 
but was sent from hand to hand until he arrived in Dublin. 

" O^Donnell then returned home, having first traversed and 
completed the visitation of all Connacht. He mustered his 
forces again without much delay in the same year, and marching 
to Dublin compelled the people of Dublin to expel Muireadhach, 
who tled into Alba (Scotland) ; and here he rernained 
until he composed three poems in praise of O'Donnell, implor- 
ing peace and forgiveness. The third of these poems is the 
one beginning, ' Oh ! Donnell, kind hand of peace, &c.' He 
obtained peace íbr his panegyrics, and O^Donnell afterwards 
received him into his friendship and gave him lands and 
possessions as was pleasing to him.'" 

Thus far the Historians of Tirconnell. We have never seen 
any of the poems addressed by 0'Daly to O^Donnell on this 
occasion ; but we have a copy of a poem addressed by him 
when he fled into Clanrickard, to Eichard De Burgo, the son 

of William Eitz-Adelm, stating the cause of his flight, and 

imploring that great lord's protection. It begins " cjieAb A^A^b 

A01Ó15 a 3-cé^r) ? '' i. e. " what brings a guest to you from 

afar ? " In this poem (of which there is a good copy in a paper 

MS. intheLibrary of the Eoyal Irish Academy), Muireadhach 

calls himself 0'Daly of Meath (0'<DáIai5 2t)l6e), and states 

that he was wont to frequent the Courts of the English, and 

to drink wine from the hands of kings and knights, of bishops 

and abbots ; that, not wishing to remain to be trampled under 

the feet of the Eace of Conn, he fled to one, who, with his 

mail-clad warriors, was able to protect him against the fury of 

the King of Derry and Assaroe, who had threatened him with 

his vengeance, though indeed the cause of his enmity was but 

trifring, for that he (the fugitive) had only killed a plebeian 

of his people who had the audacity to affront him. 

beA5 Aft b-pAlA fi|r At) b-jreAft, 
DacIac bo beic Oott) cAjTjeAó ; 

21 t5é ! ATJ íVÓbA-p. ATl-frolAÓ ? 

Trifling is our diíFerence with the inan, 

A shepherd was afíronting me ; 

And I killed that clown ; 

God ! is this a cause for enmity ? 

He calls upon the puissant Knight, Eichard, the son of 
William, to respect the order of the poets, who are never treated 
with harshness by chieftains, and to protect the weak against 
the strong. He next bestows some verses of panegyric upon 
him, describes the splendour of his house and its inmates, 
calls him the Chief of the English, the Lord of Leinster, the 
King of Connacht, the Proprietor of the Forts of Cruachain, of 
Tara, of Mac Coise's Wall of Stone, and of Mur-mic-an-Duinn 
then called Caislean-Ui-Chonaing, — and suggests that he might 
hereafter invite the poets of the five provinces to his house. 
He then tells Eichard the son of William, that whatever deeds 
of valour any one may have achieved, he cannot be truly 
renowned without protecting the venerable, or the feeble ; and 
that he now has an opportunity of making himself illustrious 
by protecting 0'Daly of Meath, a poet whose verses demand 
attention, and who throws himself on his generosity. He 
concludes by reminding him of his duties as king of the famous 
province of Connacht. See Annals of the Four Masters, Ed. 
J. OT>., A.D. 1213, pp. 179, 181, note e 

In 1232, died Gilla-na-naeve Ó'Dalv, a learned poet who 
had kept a house of hospitalitj for the poor and rich. Four 

Under tlie year 1 244, tlie Annals of tlie ÍWr Masters 
record the death of " Donough Mor O'Dalv, 1 the brother of this 
Muireadhaeh of Lissadill, a poet who never was and never will be 
surpassed ; he was interred in the Abbey of Boyle." In the 
Annals of Clonmacnoise he is called chief of Ireland for poetry. 
According to tradition and some written pedigrees, he was the 
head of the 0'Dalys of Finnyvara in the north of Burrin in 
the County of Clare, where they still point out the site of his 
house or college, and his honorary monument. A tree in the 
cemeterv of the Abbey of Boyle is still pointed out as marking 
his grave. He is the ancestor of Lord Dunsandle, whose 
more immediate ancestor removed from Finny vara to Hy-Many 
with Eaghnailt Ny Brien the wife of Tadhg Euadh 0'Kelly 
of Callow, in the latter part of the nfteenth century. See 
Tribes and Customs ofHy-Many 3 p. 125. 

In 1245, died Carroll [Buidhe, Yellow] Boy, son of Teige, 
son of Aenghus Fionnabhrach 0'Daly. (Four Masters). 

A.D. 1268, died Aenghus O'Dalv, a man eminentfor poetrv, 
and a keeper of a house of hospitality. 

A.D. 1274, died Teige, son of Carroll [Buidhe] Boy O'Dalv, 
chief poet of Hugh O'Conor, King of Connacht. 

A.D. 1311, died Gilla-Iosa O'Dalv, an Ollamh in poetrv. 

A.D. 1323, we flnd one of the family in Ulster, forin that 
year Loghlin, the son of Owen O'Dalv, was slain by the 
sons of Hugh [Buidhe] Boy O'JSTeill. 

A.D. 1.337, Lughaidh (Louis) O'Dalv, Bishop of Clonmac- 
noise died after a well-spent life. 

A.D. 1350, died Aenghus Eoe 0'Daly, the most learned 
of the poets of Ireland. 

A.D. 1367, Teige and Loughlin, two sons of Aenghus Eoe 
O'Dalv, died. 

A.D. 1377, Hugh Mac Namara, chief of Clann-Choilen, 
was slain by the son of O'Dalv's daughter. 

A.D. 1378, Teige the son of Loughlin Mac Namara, was 
slain by the son of O'Da^'s daughter. 

1 0'Reilly says, that he was called the Ovid of Ireland, but we have 
not learned by whom, although such indeed he may be regarded ; 
but it must be aclaiowledged that he has beensince excelled by many 
of his countrvmen. His poems are principally of a religious or moral 
character, and possess considerable merit, considering the age to 
which they belong, but not so much as to entitle him to the unquali- 
fied praise bestowed upon his powers by the Four Masters. See 
0'Reilly's Descriptive Catalogue of IrishWriters, pp. 88— 92, for a 
list of his poems. 


A.D. 1387, died Goffrev Finn O'Dalv, chief poet of Ire- 

A.D. 1394,, Teige O'Haughian, a learned poet, was slain 
by tlie sons of Cuchonnacht 0'Daly [in a squabble], about 
the Ollamh-ship of O'Xeill. 

A.D. 1404, Carroll O'Dalv, Ollamh of Corcomroe, and 
Donnell, the son of Donough O'Dalv, who was called Bolg- 
an-Dana (the Budget of Poetrv), died. 

A.D. 1408, O'Haughian was slain by the O'Dalvs, at 
Machaire Maenmhaighe [near Loughrea in the County of 
Galway] . 

A.D. 1415, Sir John Talbot, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, 
plundered the lands of several poets, which were considered 
inviolable by the Irish. He plundered 0'Daly of Meath 
(Dermot), and Maurice O'Dalv, and in the ensuing summer 
he plundered 0'Daly of Corcomroe (Farrell, son of Teige, 
son of Aenghus Roe). 

A.D. L420, diedÉarrell O'Dalv, Ollamh of Corcomroe, in 

A.D. 1438, 0'Daly of Breifnv, chief poet to O'Reillv, died. 

A.D. 1448, Derinot, son of Owen, son of Mahon O'Dalv, 
Ollamh of all Meath, a learned poet, died and was interred at 
Durrow-Columbkille, in the King's County. 

A.D. 1459, Murtough O'Dalv, a learned poet, died. 

A.D. 1466, Murtough, son of Cuchonnacht O'Dalv, died. 

A.D. 1474, 0'Daly of Meath (Carbry), died. 

A.D. 1490, 0'Daly of Breifny (John, son of "William, son 
of Hugh), a learned poet, died. 

A.D. 1493, Conor, son of 0'Daly of Breifny, died. 

A.D. 1496, Owen Oge, son of Owen, son of Hugh O'Dalv, 

A.D. 1507, 0'Daly Pinn (Godfrev, son of Donough), 
and 0'Daly of Carbery (Aenghus, son of Aenghus Caech), 

A.D. 1514, 0'Daly of Corcomroe (Teige, son of Donough, 
son of Teige, son of Carroll), a professor of poetry, who hací 
kept a house of general hospitalitv, died at Finnyvara, and 
was buried in the Abbey of Corcomroe. 

A.D. 1589, Donnell O'Dalv, a gentleman who had the 
command of a party of soldiers in the Queen's service under 
Sir Eichard Bingham, was taken and beheaded by the Burkes 
of the County of Mayo, who were then in rebellion. Annah 
of the Four Masters, p . 1 8 8 1 . 


Of the various branches of this poetical farailj 1 only one 
seems to have risen to rank and political importance in Ireland, 
namelv, the descendants of Donough Mor O'Dalv, who removed 
to Hy-Many in the latter part of the fifteenth century. Before 
the Revolution the head of this branch, Denis Daly of Car- 
rownekelly, in the County of Galwav, Esq v was second Justice 
of the Court of Common Pleas, and a Privy Councillor in the 
reign of King James II. "He continued to fill this station 
at the Revolution/' says Lodge, " with such impartiality and 
integrity (in those arduous times), as added lustre to his 
judicial character." 

The representative of this gentleman at the latter end of 
the last centurv, was the Bight Honorable Denis Daly, for 
many years member for the County of Galwav, in the Irish 
Parliament^ distinguished for his eloquence and abilitj ; and 
characterised by Grattan as " one of the best and brightest 
characters Ireland ever produced." His eldest son James, 
after having also represented that County many years in 
Parliament, was, by the Title of Baron of Dunsandle and 
Clan Conal, County of Galwav, raised to the Peerage of 
Ireland, June 6th, 1845. 

Prom the Genealogical Table given at p. 4, it is clear that 
Cuchonnacht na Sgoile O'Dalv, who died at Clonard, in 1139, 
was the first man of the 0'Dalys who was celebrated for his 
learning. Prom his period forward poetry became a profession 
in the familv, and the Corca-Aclaim sent forth poetical 
professors to various parts of Ireland. About the middle of 
the twelfth century B,aghnall 0'Daly settled in Desmond, and 
became chief professor of poetry to Mac Carthv, king of Des- 
mond. Prom him ; no doubt, the ; Dalys of Muintir-Bhaire, 
in the south-west of the County of Cork, are descended ; but 
their pedigree 'has not been preserved by the 0'Clery' , s or Mac 
Firbises, and it is to be feared that it is irrecoverably lost. Dr. 
O'Brien, indeed, asserts in his Irish Dictionary (voce dala), 
that the 0'Dalys of Munster are descended from the third son 
of Aenghus, king of Cashel, who was baptized by St. Patrick . 

^O'Reil^ mentions twenty-eight poets ofthis familv, and gives 
the first lines of upwards of one hundred poems written by them ; 
and we have in our own collection almost as many more which es- 
caped hisnotice ; butthey are chieny religious, being the compositions 
of Donough Mor O'Dalv, who died in 1244, and of Aenghus 0'Daly 
surnamed " na Diadhachta" (the Pious or Divine), who ílourished 
about the year 1570. See 0'Reilly's Irish Writers, p. cxxxix. 


but this is one of the very many unaccountable errors with 
which that work abounds. The same error has been interpol- 
ated into several modern copies of Keating's History of Ireland. 

Of the O'Dalvs of Muintir-Bhaire, of whom tvas Aenghus 
the Bard Ruadh, some notices occur in the Pacata Hibernia, 
Book III., and in the MS. entitled Carbrice, Notitia, which 
formed No. 591, of the sale catalogue of the late Lord Kings- 
borouglr's libraij, 1 which are here given, that the reader may 
have before him all the information respecting the sept of the 
0'Dalys at present accessible : — 

"1602. Eourth [of May], Odalie was convented before 
the Lord President and Councell, and in regard it was proved 
that hee came from the Rebells, with messages and offers to 
Owen Sulevan to adhere and combine with the Enemy, 
which the said Oiven did first reveal to Captaine Flower, Ser- 
geant Major of the Army, and after publikely justified it to 
Odalie's face ; the said Baly was committed to attend his 
tryal at the next sessions. 

"This Odaliés Ancestor had the country of Moyntirbary 
given unto him by the Lord President's Ancestor, many hun- 
dred yeares past, at which time Careiv had to his inheritance, 
the moity of the whole kingdome of Corke, which was first 
given by King Henry the second unto Bobert Fitz Stephen ; 
the service which Odaly and his progenie were to doe, for so 
large a proportion of Lands unto Carew and his successors was 
(according to the custom of that time) to bee their Bimers, or 
Chroniclers of their actions." 

This account of Carew is, however, not very accurate ; for 
the family never had possession of this territory until the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth, and then only for a very short time. In 
the reign of Edward III. Thomas de Carew set up a claim, as 
heir to Eitz-Stephen, to all his ancient estaíes in Cork ; but 
by an Inquisition taken at Cork, before Sir Anthony Lucey, 
Lord Justice of Ireland, onthe 31st. of August, in the fifth 
year of the reign of Edward III., it was found that ' ' Eobert 
Eitz-Stephen died seized of the moiety of the estate granted 
by Henry II. to him and Milo de Cogan, and that the said 
Eitz-Stephen was a Bastard, and died without issue of his 
body ; that the claim of Thomas de Carew, asserting that he 
and his ancestors were heirs to Eitz-Stephen, could not be 

1 Sold by 0. Sharpe, at his literary sale-rooms, Anglesea-st, Dublin, 
Nov. 1842. 


tme, because the said Fitz-Stephen was a Bastard, and died 
without issue of his body." 

Notwithstanding this Inquisition the claim was again set 
np in 1568,, by Sir Peter Carew, whose brother Sir George, 
was afterwards President of Munster ; butSir Peter died in 1575, 
and his heir Peter junior, was slain by the O'Bjrnes at Glen- 
malure in 1580; and the prosecution of the suit ended in 
nothing. (Four Masters, A. D. 1580). From this it is very 
clear that the 0'Dalys of Muintir- Bhaire had little or no 
connection with the Carews either in the reigns of Edward III. 
or of Elizabeth. The Author of Carhrice Notitia, evidentlv seeing 
through the fallacy of tliis statement in the Pacata Hibernia, 
thus modifies it in his account of the south-west of the County 
of Cork. 

íf And soe [crossing Dunmanus Bay] you come to Mjnter- 
vary, which lyes between Dunmanus Bay and Bearhaven, in 
which there is nothing worth observation except Coolnalong, 
a pretty seat belonging formerly to Muchlagh, a sept of the 
Cartys. This countrv was, according to Irish custome, 
given to O'Dalv, who was successively Bard to O'Mahonv and 
Carew ; and to O'Glavin, who was his Termoner or receiver." 
Dr. Smith also describes Miuterbarrj, and calls it " a most 
barbarous countrv, ljing between Dunmanus Bay and Bantrj 
Bay,"f7listorygf CorJc, Book II, c. 4>.J, but says nothing of 
the O'Daljs in connection with it ! ! 

The head of this family had his residence at Druim-Naoi, 
or Drumnea, in the parish of Kilcrohane, where a portion of 
his house, commonly called u The Old College Ilouse," still 
remains, and forms the residence of a farmer, Mr. George 
Nicolas. The walls are well built, and cemented with lime 
and mortar, and from fragments of ruins still to be seen close 
to what remains, it may be inferred that it was once a house 
of some importance. According to tradition, two sons of a 
king of Spain, who were at school here under the tuition of 
O'Dalv, died and were buried in Drumnea. 

The hcad of this familv, Aenghus, son of Aenghus Caech 
0'Daly Cairbreach, died in tbe year 1507 1 . The last profes-* 
sional poet of this house was Conchobhar Cam O^Dalaigli Cair- 

*A branch of this farnily of the O'Daljs, removed to the County of 
Kerrv, a member of whom was the celebratcd Daniel or Dominiclc 
O'Dalv, who wrote the Historv of the Geraldines. He was born in 
theyear 1595, and died at Lisbon in the year 1662. 


breach, wlio wrote an elegy of fortv ranns or quatrains, on the 
death of Donnell O'Donovan, chief of Clann-Cathail, who died 
in 1660, beginning: — 

** CrieAí) bo TIU3 ATt TTiAncn«Mó SnujrriTieAc ? ■ 
" TVhat has overtaken the Momonian Youths ?" 
He also addressed a poern of thirteen ranns or quatrains> 
to his pupil Donough, the son of Donnell O'Donovan, and 
brother of said Donnell, who died in 1660, beginning : — 

" S-sei loATTj-f a luióe t)OTiricA]ó. ■ 
" Sorrowful to me is the lying [sicknessj of Donnchadh." 

This Donough, who was the foster-son of 0'Daly Cairbreach, 
is the ancestor of Mr. James O'Donovan of Myross, in the 
Countv of Cork. 

Conchobliar Cam 0'Daly also addressed a short poem 1 of nine 
quatrains, to Joan, daughter of Sir Owen Mac Carthj Reagh, 
and wife of O'Donovau (Donnell, son of Donnell, son of Teige), 
beginuing : — 

" 21 SblobAii, bAi.1731773 Att o-t>Ail." 
" O ! Joan, confirm our treaty." 

The last descendant of O'Dalv of Drumnea, wlio was recog- 
nized in the countrv as the head of the sept, and who claimed 
the 0'Daly tomb at Rilcrohane, was Mr. James Daly of Bantry. 
He removed from Bantrj to Cork, where he became a distiller, 
and kept a respectable establishment in John-street. He died 
some three or four jears since, leaving a son, Mr. James O'Dalv, 
who is still living at Cork. 

That Aenghus 0'Daly the Bard Ruadh, was of this family, 
but not the chief of it, little doubt can be entertained ; and 
O'Reillv believes that he was the Angus O'Dalv of Balliorrone, 
who according to an Inquisition taken at the Old Castle in Cork, 
on the 1 8th. of September, 1624, died on the 1 6th. of Decem- 
ber, ] 6.17, leaving a son Angus Oge O'Dalv. 

The Ballvorrone mentioned in this Inquisition is now called 
Ballvmne. It originallj comprised the present Balljrune, as 
well as Cora, Laherdotv, and Ballvieragh. Laherdoty was for- 
merly called Mid-Ballyrune, and Bailvieragh (B^jle lAutATtAÓ, 
i. e., west town), West-Ballyrune. The site and small portions 

1 Copies of these poems are preserved in paper MS. about one 
hundred and sixtv vears old, which was in the possession of Mr. 
Peter Lavalli,latePeruquier of the Four Courts, Dublin ; and now 
living in Paris. 


of the walls of Aenghus 0'Daly's, or the Bard Ruadh's house, 
are still pointed out in that subdivision of Ballvrune called 
Cora. The walls are built of freestone and cemented with lime 
and hair mortar. There is a rock near the Tower at Sheep's 
Head, called Btió Sterrju^f, (i e., Angus's Quern), which is 
locallv believed to have received its name from Aenghus na 
n-áer O'Dalv. Several of the Dalys, or O' Dalvs of Muintir- 
Bhaire, claimed descent from him, namelv, Daniel Daly of 
r 3lhakista, deceased, and several others, but the widow Connell 
alias Mary Daly, now in the Bantry work-house, is believed to 
be the nearest akin to him now living. Her friends have emi- 
grated to America. Several verses attributed to the Bard 
Ruadh of Ballvrune, and having reference to his coshering pro- 
pensities, in his old age, when he was poor, are still locally 
recited, which corroborate O'Eeillv's opinion, that he was the 
Angus O'D&lj mentioned in the Inquisition above referred to ; 
but never, at anv period of his life, was he poet to 0'Keeffe, as 
0'Eeilly thinks." 

The family of O'Dálv was always considered as forming about 
the one-twelfth part of the population of Muintir-Bhaire, now 
included in the parish of líilcrohane. 

Erom a census of the population taken by the Eev. John 
Keleher, P. P., in October, 1834, itappears that the total popu- 
lation of the parish was then 4448 souls, of which the 0'Dalys 
were 345, including 182 inales, and 163 females, i. e., about 
one-twelfth of the entire population. 

In Deceinber, 1849, a census of the parish was also taken 
by the Eev. Jeremiah Cummins, E. C. C, from which it appears 
that the population had decreased to 2820 souls, of which the 
0'Dalys constituted 217, (125 males, and 92 females), i. e., one- 
thirteenth of the entire population. Both censuses prove that 
the O'Dal^s have kept up their old proportion to the population, 
although they are as liable to disappear by starvation and emi- 
gration as the other families of Muintir-Bhaire. 

The 0'Dalys (who appear to have forfeited the last remnant 
of their property in Muintir-Bhaire, at the Eevolutiou), are now 
reduced to the condition of cottiers or struggling farmers, in this 
wild district. The principal proprietors at present are, Eichard 
O'Donovan, Esq., J. P., Fort Lodge, Bantry ; Dr. Danicl 
O'Donovan of Skibbereen, J. P. ; Timothy O'Donovan, Esq., 
J. P., O'Donovan's Cove; and Timothy O'Donovan, Esq., of 

The ancestor of the threc first-mentioned proprietors, took 


this large tract of land for 999 years, frora a Mr. Congreve of 
Mount Congreve, in the County of Waterford, an undertaker ; 
to whose descendant they still pay some small head rent. Ti- 
mothy O'Donovan, Esq., of Ardahill (who descends from Kedagh 
Mor, the voungestson ofO'Donovan, by the daughter of Sir 
Owen Mac-Carthy Reagh), was himself the purchaser of Arda- 
hill, Carravilleen, Derry-clovane and Eaunmore. 


A satire is a poem in which wickedness and folly are censured, 
with a view to check them. Satire is general. A lampoon 
or pasquinade is personal, and always intended, not to reform, 
but to insult and vex : the former is commendable ; the latter 
scurrilous \—fceda et insulsa scurrilitas. The term, Pasquinade, 
is said to have been derived from an old cobbler of the city of 
Rome, called Pasquin, who had his stall at the corner of the pa- 
lace of Ursina, and who was famous for his sneers and jibes on 
the passers-by. After his death, as the pavement was dug up 
before his shop, there was found in the earth the statue of an 
ancient gladiator, well cut, but mutilated. This was set up in 
the place where it was fouud, and by common consent named 
Pasquin. Since that time all satires are attributed to that figure, 
and are either put in its mouth, or pasted upon it ; and these 
are addressed by Pasquin to Marforio, another statue at Rome. 

An aeir (satire) among the Irish, was of two kinds, the first 
was a satire or lampoon, merely intended to censure and annoy, 
but the second was of a more virulent nature, for the subject of 
it was not only censured and insulted, but also imprecated and 
cursed. The first satire composed in Ireland is said to have 
been by Crithinbeal the satirist, for Breas, son of Ealathan, king 
of the Tuatha De Dananns, but a Eomorian by descent, whose 
period O'Flahertv fixes to A. M. 2764 ; but of this satire we have 
no portion remaining. The next was composed by Neidhe, son of 
Adhna, for his paternal uncle Caier, or Caicher, King of Con- 
nacht, A. M. 8950. This satire called ^Iati} bícenb, is refer- 
red to in Cormac'sGlossarv, under the woiáGaire (shortness of life), 
and from the lines quoted it would appear to be more an easgaine 


o r iroprecation , than a satire or lampoon. King Caier, son of 
Guthar, having no son of his own, adopted his nephew the poet 
Neidhe, son of Adhna, son of Guthar. The wife of Caier con- 
ceived a criminal passion for Neidhe., and offered him a ball of 
silver forhisaffection. But Neidhe continuedto reject her advances 
until she offered him the kingdom of Connacht. " How can that 
come to pass ?" said Neidhe. " It will not be difílcult/' said 
theQueen: íf you are apoet;you can rhyme him to death, or 
afflict him with a blemish on his cheek ; compose an aeir for 
him, that he may have a blemish, and a man with a blemish 
cannot enjoy the kingdom." " It will be difhcult for me to do 
this," said N eidhe, " for he would not refuse me anvthing he 
hasinhispossession; hehasnotanything in the world that he would 
not give me." " I know/' said theQueen, " a thing that he would 
not give you, i. e., the scian (knife) that was presented to him 
in the land of Alba ; that he would not give you : for he is 
bound by solemn injunction not to give it away."" After this 
Neidhe asked Caier for the knife. " Alas !" said Caier, " I am 
bound by a solemn injunction not to give it away." This was 
violatingthe -pé^le 7x73 (the bounty of a king), and Neidhe 
composed a Glam Dichendíov him, which caused three blotches to 
appear on his cheek ! 

Caier went forth early in the morning to the well ; he 
drew his hand across his cheek, and felt the three boils on his 
face, which had been caused by the aeir, and saw (in the foun- 
tain) that one was green, the other red, and the third white. 
Caier immediately fled that none might see his blemish, and he 
delaved not until he reached Dun-Cearmna (the old head of 
Xinsale), where he remained in disguise in the palace of Cather, 
son of Edersgel. Neidhe then 'became king of Connacht^ and 
remained in the enjoyment of that dignity for one year. He 
was sorry for the injury inflicted on Caier, and hearing where 
he was, set out for Dun-Cearmna in Caier's own chariot, and 
attended by Cúei'sfait/iless Queen and his favourite hound ! 

Neidhe approached the Dun with great pomp, and all enquired 
who he was ? Caier, who at once recognised his countenancej 
cried out, " he sits in my seat." u This is the word of a king/' 
said Cather, the son of Edersgel, " and I knew not that you 
were a king till now.'' íf Savemy life/' replied Caier, Caier 
fled through the house and hid behind a rock at the back of the 
Dan. Neidhe went into the palace in his chariot, and the hound 
went on the scent of Caier and found him uncler the rock which is 
behind the Dun, where he died of sharae on seeing Neidhe. The 


rock iguited at the death oí Caier, and a splinter 1 of it flew at the 
eye of JNTeidhe and broke it in his head, and thus the vengeance of 
heaven fell upon him for his ungenerous conduct towards his 
uncle, who had loved him, and adopted him as his son. 

About the same period with Neidhe of Connacht, we find 
Athairne of Binn-Edair (now Howth), satirizing the men of 
Leinster fof having killed his only son. " He continued 
for a full vear to satirize the Leinstermen, and bring fatal- 
ities upon them ; so that neither corn, grass, nor foliage grew 
for them that year. — BooJc ofBallymote, fol. 77, p. 2. col. b. 
See also Statute of Kilkenny, edited bj Hardiman, pp. 55, 56, 

At this tiine, and for some centuries afterwards, the bards 
were exceedinglv insolent, but they were reformed by the 
laws passed at the synod of Drom-Ceat, where St. Columb- 
kille attended, in the reign of Aedh Mac Ainmirech. 2 

In 1414, as we are informed by the Pour Masters, Niall 
O'Higgin, a famous poet of Westmeath, composed a satire 
for Sir Jolm Stanley, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, which caused 
his death; and it was remarked that this was the second poet- 
ical miracle performed by the same Niall. 

1 A somewhat similar story is told of Cloch Labhruis, a remark- 
able rock near Bunmahon, in the County of Waterford. This rock, 
as tradition records, could once speak good Irish, and was remark- 
able for determining causes, and settling disputes, until at length 
its heart was broken by the equivocation of a wicked woman, and it 
split asunder, exclaiming, " b|ot) ai? fíw)i?e V&W xe&\ib," i.e, íf the 
truth itself is often bitter." 

2 Notwithstanding the reformation of the Bardic order, caused 
bj the wisdom, abilitj, and exertions of St. Columbkille, we íind 
various instances of their insolence and bitterness on record. 
There is a story in the Leabhar Breac (Speckled Book) of the Mac 
Egans, fol. 35, b, which states that a lampoon was composed for 
the Kinel-Fiacha (Mageoghegans) of "Westmeath, by certain satir- 
ists, in which it was asserted that thev were not descended from 
Fiacha, the son of the great Niall Naoighiallach, but from a ple- 
beian Fiacha, the son of Aedh, son of Maelebressi. 

" O Kinel-Fiacha ! behold your genealogy ! 
Fiacha, son of Aedh, son of Maelebressi." 

It is added that this lampoon enraged the tribe to such a degree, 
that, at a place called Rosscorr thev murderedthe satirists, although 
they were under the protection St. O'Suanaigh of Raithin (Rahin 
in the King's County), and that for this sarughadh, or violation 
of the Saint's protection, the Kinel-Fiacha forfeited two townlands 
to O'Suanaigh, which formed a part of the possessions of the church 
of Raithin, when the story was written. See the Miscellany of the 
Irish Archaeological Society, voí. I. pp. 179. 180. 



Tlie fame of the Irish bards in this respect reached even 
England. Eeginald Scott (Descoverie of Witehcraft, Booh 
III, c. xv. p. 35.) states, "the Irishnien will not sticke to 
afíirme that they can rime either man or beast to death/" And 
in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, the bards became so obnox- 
ions to the government bj their rhjnies to foment rebellion, 
that severe laws were passed in parliament against them, and 
those who entertained them. It appears from the Public 
Hecords, that in 15 63, articles in the following words were, 
among others, assented to by the Earl of Desniond, to be 
observed to the state. 

Item, " for as much as no smale enormvties doo growe within 
those shires [the Connties of Cork, Limerick ancl Kerry] by 
the continuall recourse of certain Idle men of lewde deineanor, 
called Rhjmurs, Bards, and dyce players, and Carroghs, who 
under pretence of their travaill doo bring privy intellygence 
betwene the malefactors inhabvtinge in these severall shires, to 
the greate distruction of true subjects, that ordres betaken with 
the said Lordes and Gentlemen [his followers] that none of 
those sects nor outhere like evil persons be suffride to travaill 
within there Eules, as the statuts of Irelande doo appoint, 
and that proclamation be made accordinglie, and that who- 
soever after the proclamation shall maynteme or suffre anv 
suche Idlemen wythin there several tenjtories, that he or they 
shall paye suche íines as to the discretion of the said Com- 
missioners or Presidents [of Munster] for the time being shall 
be thoughte goode. Item, for that those Rtjmors doo by their 
ditties and Ehymes made to dyvers Lords and Gentlemen in 
Irelande in the commendation and heighe praise of extorsion, 
rebell^on, rape, raven, and outhere injustice, encourage those 
Lordes and Gentlemen rather to followe those vices then to leve 
them, and for making of such rhymes rewards are gyven by the 
saidLordes and Gentlemen, that for abolishinge of soo heynouse 
an abuse ordres be taken with the saide Earle, Lordes, and 
Gentlemen, that none of them from hencefourthe doo give any 
manner of rewarde for any suche lewde rhymes, and he that 
shall offende the ordres to paye for a flne to the Quene's 
Majestie double the value of that he shall so paye, and that 
the Rymer that shall make any suche Ehymes or ditties shall 
make fyne according to the discretiance of the said Commis- 
sioners, and that proclamation be made accordinglie." — Harris's 
Ware. vol ii. p. 127. 
The poet Spenser recommends the checking of these warlike 


bards who fired the minds of the young with rebellion. Hís 
words are worthy of a place here, as a corroboration of 
the proverb, that "two of a trade can never agree." 

Iren. "There is amongst the Irish a certaine kind of people, 
called Bardes, which are to them insteed of Poets, whose pro- 
fession is to set foorth the praises or dispraises of men in their 
poems or rymes, the which are had in so high regard and 
estimation amongst thein, that none dare displease them for 
feare to runne into reproach thorough their ofíence, and to be 
made infamous in the mouthes of all men. For tlieir verses 
are taken up with a generall applause, and usually sung at all 
feasts and nieetings, by certaine other persons, whose proper 
function that is, who also receive for the same great rewards 
and reputation amongst thein." 

Eudox. "Doe vou blame this in them which I would otherwise 
have thought to have beene worthy of good accompt, and rather 
to have beene maintained and augmented amongst them, then 
to have been disliked ? for I have reade that in all ages poets 
have beene had in speciall reputation, and that (me thinkes) 
not without great cause ; for besides their sweete inventions, 
and most wittie laves, thev have alwayes used to set foorth the 
praises of the good and vertuous, and to beat downe and dis- 
grace the bad and vitious. So that many brave young mindes 
have oftentimes thorough hearing the praises and famous eu- 
logies of worthie men sung and reported unto thein, beene 
stirred up to affect the like commendations^ and so to strive 
to the like deserts. So they say that the Lacedemonians were 
more excited to desire of honour, with the excellent verses of 
the poet Tirtceus, then with all the exhortations of their cap- 
taines^ or authority of their Eiders and Magistrates." 

Iren. " It is most true, that such Poets as in their writiugs 
do labour to better the manners of men, and thorough the sweete 
baite of their numbers to steale into the young spirits a desire 
of honour and vertue, are worthy to bee had in greate respect. 
But these Irish Bardes are for the most part of another mind, 
and so farre from instructing young men in morall discipline, 
that they themselves doe more deserve to be sharpely discipHned ; 
for they seldome use to choose unto themselves^ the doings of 
good men for the arguments of their poems, but whomsoever 
they finde to be most licentious of life, most bolde and lawlesse 
in his doings, most dangerous and desperate in all parts of 
disobedience and rebellious disposition 5 him they set up and 
glorifie in their ritlunes, him they praise to the people, and to 
yong men make an example to follow." 


Eudox. " I marvaile what kinde of speeches they can fínde, 
or what face thej can put on, to praise such bad persons as live 
so lawleslie and licentiouslie upon stealthes and spoyles, as 
most of them doe, or how can they thinke that any good mind 
will applaude, or approve the same." 

Iren. " There is none so bad., Eudoxus, but shall finde some 
to favour his doings; but such licentious partes as thesetending 
for the most part to the hurt of the English, or maintainance of 
of their owne lewde libertie,, they themselves being most des- 
irous therof, doe most allow. Besides this, evill things being 
decked and attired with gay attire of goodly wordes, may easily 
deceive and carry away the affection of a young mind, that is 
not well stayed, but desirous by some bolde adventures to make 
proofe of himselfe ; for being (as they all be brought up idely) 
without awe of parents, wáthout precepts of masters,, and 
without feare of offence, not being directed, nor imployed in any 
course of life_, which may carry them to vertue, will easily be 
drawne to follow such as any shall set before them ; for a 
yong minde cannot rest ; if he be not still busied in some 
goodnessehewillfmde himselfesuchbusinesse asshall soonebusie 
áll about him. In which if he shall finde any to praise him, 
and to give him encouragement, as those Bardes and Ehythmers 
doe for little reward, or a share of a stolne cow_, then waxeth 
he most insolent, and halfe madde with the love of himselfe^ 
and his owne lewd deeds. And as for words to set forth sucli 
lewdness, it is not hard for them to give a goodely and painted 
shewe thereunto borrowed even from the praises which are 
proper to vertue it selfe. As of a most notorious thiefe and 
wicked outlaw which had lived all his life-time of spovles and 
robberies, one of their Bardes in his praise will say, That he 
was none of the idle milke sops that was brought up by the 
fire side, but that most of his dayes he spent in armes and 
valiant enterprises, that he did never eat his meat, before he 
had won it with his sword, that he lay not all night slugging 
in a cabbin under his mantle, but used commonly to keepe 
others waking to defend their lives, and did light his candle * at 
the flames of their houses, to lead him in the darknesse ; that 
the day was his night, and the night his clay ; that he loved 
not to be long wooing of wenches to yeeld to him, but where 
he came he tooke by force the spoyle of other inen's love, and 

1 Thady Dowling, says of R017 O'More (A.D. 1577), that the 
"Irish rimers extol him like him that burnt Diana's Temple," 
Annales, p. 42. 


left but lamentation to their lovers ; that his musick was not 
the harpe, nor layes of love, but the cryes of people and 
clashing of armor ; and finally, that he died not bewavled of 
many, but made many waile when he died, that dearly bought 
his death. Doe you not thinke (Eudoxus) that many of these 
praises might be applyed to men of best deserts ? yet are they 
all yeelded to a most notable traytor, and amongst some of the 
Irish not smally accountecl of. Eor the song when it was 
first made and to a person of high degree there, was bonght 
(as their manner is) for fourty crownes." 

Eudox. " And well worthy sure. But tell me (I pray you) 
have they any art in their compositions ? or bee they any 
thing wittie or well savoured, as poems should be ?" 

Iren. " Yea truely, I have caused divers of them to be trans- 
lated unto me, that I might understand thern, and surely tliey 
savoured of sweet wit and good invention, but skilled not of 
the goodly ornaments of poetrv ; yet were they sprinkled with 
some pretty flowers of their naturall device, which gave good 
grace and comeliness unto them, the which it is great pitty to 
see abused, to the gracing of wickedness and vice, which with 
good usage, would serve to adorne and beautifie vertue. This 
evil custome therefore needeth reformation." — View of the 
State of Ireland, Dublin Ed., 1810, p. 119 to 124. 

In 15 7 2, the Earl of Thomond (Conor son of Donough 
O'Brien), enforced the law against the Bards, and hanged 
three distinguished poets, " for which abominable and treacher- 
ons act the Earl was satirized and denounced." See Annals 
ofthe Four Masters, A. D. 1572, p. 1657. 

About this period there was a poem addressed to O' Brien, by 
his ex-chief poet MacDaire; in which he admonishes the inno- 
vator not to dare lay violent hands on any of the venerable 
order of the Bards ; tells him that he (Mac I)aire) has a deadly 
weapon — a venemous satire — to cast, which would cause short- 
ness of life, and against which neither the solitudes of valleys, 
the density of woods, nor the strength of castles would protect 
his enemies. He then adduces examples from Irish history 
of the destruction caused by the aeirs, or satires of ancient 
poets; as the satire composed by Crithinbheal, or Cairbre 
Mac Edaine, the satirist, for the comely, magnificent, and 
poud king, Breas Mac Ealathain; 1 the one coinposed by 

1 A copy of this satire, the first ever composed in Ireland, is pre- 
served in the Librarv of Trinity College, Dublin, H. 3, 17, p. 840. 
It beg-ins, ' ' Cei} colc a^ cti]b ce^etje. ? 


Neidhe, for Caicher, king of Connacht, wliich at first, by super- 
natural means, disngured his face, and finallj caused his death ; 
and the one composed by Dallan Eorgaill, which wounded and 
withered king Aedh Mac Ainmirech. The Bard then warns 
O'Brien not to force him to fling this ominous weapon at him, 
a weapon which, from its miraculous nature, wonld extinguish all 
his good deeds, raise a disgraceful blotch on his cheek, — check 
his prosperity, and shorten his life. This warning, ho wever, seems 
to have made no impression on the Earl, for he continued the 
friend of the English cause in Ireland, and the enemy of the 
Bards and their abettors during his life. 

About this period flourished Teige Dall O'Higgin, son of 
Cairbre, and brother of Maurice, Archbishop of Tuam. He 
composed a satire 1 on six persons of the tribe of O'Hara of 
Leyny, in the County of Sligo, who had forcibly taken some 
refreshments in his house. The force of this satire was so much 
felt by the O'Haras, that they soon after returned to his 
house, cut out his tongue, and murdered his wife and child. 
See J 'Eeilly''s Irish Writers, p. clxx. 

Aenghus 0'Daly, the author of the very characterisfcic poem, 
now for the first time submitted to the public, is generally 
known to Irish scholars by the appellation of the Bard Ihiadh, 
or Eed Bard, and sometimes by that of Aenghus ua n-aer, i. e. 
Enos, Angus, or iEneas of the satires, — to distinguish him from 
several otíier O'Dal)^ of the name Aenghus. He lived in the 
reign of Elizabeth, and is said to have been specially employed 
by the agents of Lord Mountjoy and Sir George Carew* 2 to 
write this poeni, which is a bitter satire, lampoon, or burlesque, 

1 This satire begins "SUu\5 reinn C *MW5 ^ '^ ^15»" 0* e - " a g r o u P 
of six [men] came to my house)." 

He describes the miserable starved appearance of these O'Haras, 
" who were anatomies of death : living dead men," and concludes 
by praying that they may never be killed in battle, but that they 
may continue in life, which was worse than any death ! ! 

2 After the death of Sir Peter Carevv, junior, the claim of the 
Carew family to half the lcingdom of Cork, and the barony of 
Idrone, in the County of Carlow, was taken up by Sir George Carew, 
President of Munster, who corroborated his title by all sorts of 
forgeries, and among others by an Irish prophecv, which he got 
composed for the occasion — perhaps by our author ! ! A copy of 
this prophecy, with a translation and three explanatory notes, is 
preserved in his collection of MSS. now atLambeth Palace (No. 607, 
fol. 149), and runs as follows. We are not however, told the name 


directed against the chiefs of the principal ancient Irish fami- 
lies, and such of the rlescendants of the Anglo-Normans as had 
adopted their customs and formed alliances with them, in order 
that an easy conquest might be made of the country by dint of 
assertion and bare-faced effronterv, whichwere likely to stirup 
their angry passions. The boast of the Irish was hospitalitv, 
and even their enemv Sir Eichard Cox acknowledges that they 
were recklessly hospitable. 

Aenghus executed his task, by attempting to prove in detail, 
by force of assertion, that thev wcre not hospitable nor generous ; 
that they were too poor to afford being so; whicli was themode 
of proceeding to excite tlieir anger. Ile received, however, that 
kind of rewardwhich he did not anticipate,butwhich allrecreant 
betrayers of their race, richly deserve : for on appearing at a 
banquet in the sweet Palatine County of Tipperary, he was stab- 
bed through the heart by the order or command of O'Meagh- 
er, chief of Ikerrin, at the rudeness of whose mansion he had 
made some scurrilous remark. He is said to have composed 
extempore, a remarkable quatrain respecting his having so 
recklessly lampooned his countrvmen. This quatrain the 
reader will find at the end of the poem. 

On undertaking to produce this poem, he made a regular 
circuit of the kingdom, — which was then in a most deplorable 
state of distress, — satirizing the different families in his progress, 
which he did with an unsparing pen, dipped in gall, and poison, 
and sometimes in filthier ink; but he was so much afraid 
of some of them that he did not venture to defame them. He 
does not lampoon Eed Hugh O'Donnell, because he was, as he 

of the Saint who made the prophecy, but we suspect it was St. 
Aenghus Ceile-Dé-moin ! ! — 

" CicpAió &o ceAttc* [tlO CA1TIC+] AT) Cl)Aiaúi?Ai5, 
3o it)Aó rjAicTieAC l]b a tioéticAÍóe ; 

DUÓ f)10TT)ÓA 5IÓTI AllTT)ÚTtA15, 

t3'A fCAoileó co]r tja 2T)íAclAi5e4 [tjo 2í)?AT)lAT5e.] 

t( It will proceed of Carew's right, 
You will regret your private actes ; 
When many a foreign voice unyte, 
Will be on banks of Mvathlaght." 

*" CeATic, a man's title, a man's interest, more íitly a man's lawful 
estate, or a man's right." 

t " CAiric, an evidence of any thing, escripts, charters, or deeds of 

% <£ Myathlagh, a river in Muynter-Yary, in Carebry, Myan Leay 
[tittatjIac] the pleasant ryver of the Leay." 


acknowledges, in dread of his vengeance ; and he had not the 
stomach to satirize Mac Cann of Clann Breasail at the upper 
Bann, because he did not deserve it. Other exceptions are 
also observable, but it is to be suspected that local scribes have 
corrupted some quatrains, and foisted in others for their own 
amusement ; for no original, or very old copy of the poem has 
yet been discovered. 

The poet displays a thorough knowledge of the private and 
general history of the different tribes and chieftains, and of the 
localities of their respective territories, — as well as of the man- 
ners and customs of the period. Trom the numerous refer- 
ences to bread and butter throughout the poem, it would 
appear that these formed the staple food 1 of the country at the 

The celebrated Elorence Mac Carthv, the son-in-law of the 
Earl of Clancare ; (and, who was elected Mac Carthy More, 
by the arch-rebel Hugh Cfflei]], Earl of Tyrone) wrote a letter 2 
tothe English Government when he was confined in the tower 
of London, advising the bribing of the Bards to bring over 
the Irish gentrv to the English ínterest ; and there can be but 
little doubt that it was at his suggestion our autlior was em- 
ployed to write this poem. 

In this letter, which was written in August, 1602 ; 
and addressed to Cecil, the great Elorence, 3 writes : — 
"The two sorts of people of the greatest ability and 
authority to persuade the Irish gentlemen are the priests and 
rimers : — both dislike the English Government ínore than 
other classes do. The priests mav not be trusted to do service 
for the Queen ; while of the Itimers only some inay, if em- 
ployeclby tlwse gentlemen wltose followers tliey are by lineal 

He then goes on to say, that " he means to employ one of 
special trust and suíficiency/ ; ' — Boasts that "he was the chief- 
est cause of cutting oíf the Earle of Desmond/' and says that 
he is called " a damned counterfeit Englishman, whose only 
employment was to practise Iww to clestroy /lis countrymen 
tlie Irish." 

It appears from various letters in the State Papers' Office, 
London, that many of the native Irish were employed at this 

1 See Four Masters. O'Higgin vowed that he would not give 
bread and butter together to any guest. 

2 This Letter is preserved in the State Papers' Office, London. 

3 This Florence was a man of gigantic stature, and possessed of 
such talents that it was thought safer to keep him a prisoner. 


period as interpreters, and in low situations as spies and un- 
derlings, from which some of them crept into rank and station. 
Of these, the most notable was, Sir Patrick Crosbie, who was 
the son of Mac-An-Crossan, O'More's Bard, or Bhymer, and 
the ancestor of the Glandore family and of Crosby of Ardfert, 
in Kerry. In a tract in the State Papers' Office, dated 
3rd July, 1600, it is stated that "Patrick Crosby, or 
Crossan, was a ' mere Irishman, bij birthj and ' unsound in 
body and mind ;' " that " his father had been Rhymer or Bard 
to the O'Mores f' that " he was an underling ofthe Government 
in Dublin, and procured patents of pardon for such of the Irish 
as applied to him ;" that " he was in the habit of passing pa- 
tents which purposelj/ contained defects ;" that being a Deputy 
to Sir GeoffreyEentoii,the Surveyor-General, " he surveyed for- 
feited Estates in a corrupt and false manner, at estimates much 
under their real value ; and on one occasion he made out a pre- 
tended title for the Queen to forty parcels of land, for part of 
wlrich he then obtained a patent for himself." It is added that 
" owing to these proceedings divers men in Munster had been 
driven into rebellion." 

A. D. 1601, December 2. The aged Earl of Ormonde, in 
a letter to Sir Eobert Cecil, on the subject of the fraudulent 
and atrocious conduct of the subordinate Government Officials 
of the day, observes that Crosbv's real surname was Mac-y- 
Crossane ; and that his ancestor had been Chief Rhpnor to the 
O'Mores and O^Connors. 

In 1601, May, 2. Sir George Carey writes to Cecil, recom- 
mending Patrick Crosby ; who, he declares, was greatly hated 
by the Irish " as a continual worker of means for their over- 
throw. w 

He became the chief agent for the removal of the unfortunate 
seven Septs of Leix, into Kerry ; and for these and like services 
he obtained large grants of land in Kerry and elsewhere. 1 

Another native Irishman, and employed by the Government, 
at this period, was Sir Erancis Shane, who was knighted by the 
Lord Deputv, Sir George Carey, in 1602. He was a member of 
the sept of the Clan-Shane OTarrell of Longford. He obtained 
considerable grants of land from the Crown, and successfully 
exposed great corruption in the Surveyor's, Escheator's, and 
Patent Offices in Dublin. In 1605 (September 28), Lord 

1 Letter of Herbert F. Hore, Esq., of Poll-Hore, County of Wex^ 
ford, to the Editor, dated Ist August, 1851. 


and Lady Dclvin vvrote to the Earl of 8alisbury complaining 
of Sir Erancis Shane, for disturbing them from lands in Long- 
fordshire. They mention that he asserted he was one of the 
OTarrell Clan, and wished to be chief of them ; whereas it was 
well known he was the son of one Nicholas Shane, son to one 
Shane some time Smith of Ardcath, and not of the OTarrell 
family. Erom documents in the State Papers' Office, it appears 
that his mother, Margaret Bathe, had been concubine to Sir 
William Brabazon, Treasurer of Ireland,, who enriched her so 
much that she found other husbands in Sir Thomas L'Estrange, 
and — Dillon, by whom she was mother of Justice Dillon of 
Connaught. Erancis Shane and Sir Thomas L'Estrange were 
knights of the Shire for the County of Galwav, in 1585. 

Another successful man of the mere Iris7i at this period was 
William Doyne. He was interpreter of Trish to the State 
before the year 1589. He was of the O'Duinn family of Iregan, 
and was probably ancestor of the now Anglicised and highly 
respectable family of Doyne. 

Another very successful interpreter of Irish to the State at 
thisperiod was Sir PatrickEox,who during the variousrebellions 
acted as intelligencer. In 1588, he was a clerk to the Clerk 
of theDublinPrivy Council, which important and lucrative oííice 
he afterwards filled himself in 1610. In 1607, he was one of 
the Commissioners for Defective Titles — a much abused office — 
and he obtained large grants of land from king James. His 
son, Nathaniel Eox, is the ancestor of the family of the ÍWs 
of Eoxhall, in the County of Longford. 

Nothing has been discovered to prove directly that our Bard 
was employed by the Government, but it looks very likely that 
he received a small portion of the secret service money, which 
was at the disposal of Crosbie, Fox, and others. 0'EeiHy 
gives the following account of Aenghus na-n-Aor : 

" On the 16th day of December, 1617, died Aengus, or 
iEneas Eoe O'Dalv, as appears by an Inquisition taken at the 
old Castle in Cork, on the eighteenth day of September, 1624. 
By this Inquisition it was found that Angus 0'Daly was seized 
in his life time of the town and lands of Ballyorroone, containing 
three carrucates of land, value ten shillings per annum ; and 
being so seized, did, on the last day of March, 1611, enfeoíf 
Thadeus Mc Carthy, Eichard Waters, John O'Dalv, and 
Earfasa O'Cantv, 1 and their heirs for ever, to the use of said 

1 Farfasa O'0anty composed a poem of one hundred and eighty 
verseson the death of Donnell O'Reeffe of the territory of Ealla, in 

27 ' 

Angus CfTfolj, duríng his natural life, and after liis death to the 
use and beneíit of Angus O'Dalv, junior, his son and heir, 
and the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten ; and that the 
said feoffees, Thadeus, Bichard, John and íarfasa, the 
foresaid preruises, without the hing's license being first ob- 
tained, together with Angus O'Dalv, senior, did, by their deed, 
dated tenth of April, 1617, enfeoff Carolus O'Dalv, his heirs, 
and assigns, in the western part of the land of Ballyorroone 
aforesaid, with the appurtenances, containing one carrucate of 
land, under this condition, that, when the said Angus O'Dalv, 
senior, his heirs and assigns, should pay said Carolus O'Dalv, 
his heirs or assigns, the sum of thirteen pounds, then the 
said Angus 0'Daly, senior, his heirs, or assigns, should be at 
liberty to re-enter and possess said land and premises, as be- 
fore the making of said deed. And that afterwards the said 
Angus 0'Daly died on the sixteenth of December, 1617.'' 

Erom his general abuse of the Irish Tribes he exempts the 
Clann Dalaigh, or O'Donnells; because as he says, he was 
afraid of their vengeance. We have not met any of his 
compositions besides the present, except a poem of one hun- 
dred and sixty-eight verses, on the death of Donnchadh Pionn 
Mheic Carrthaigh (Donogh Mac Carthy, the fair), which 
begins thus : — 

" Cívjt^c léAt} bo leAc 2t)ho5A, M 
"Misfortune hath befallen Leath Mhogha." 

There was also a poet who signed himself fe^ bofica. 
,( t)ívlAi5 (i.e., the dark-visaged, or blind, J Daly), and some- 
times nj&c Cho|tti?Afc 11] <D1)*vIai3 (i. e., the son of Cormac 
0'Daly), of whom O'Reil^ in his Irish Writers makes no 
mention whatever ; unless he was son to Cormac O'Dalv, who 
flourished A. D. 1590. He was author of a bitter satire of 
thirty-one stanzas, on a celebrated Almanacfc-ma^er, 1 or rather 

the County of Cork, and on that of the poet Angus O'Dalv, com- 
monly called the Red Bard or Angus the Satirist. See 0'Reilly ? s 
Irish Writers, p. clxxvii. 

1 We have seen a copy of these Astrological Almanacks, publis- 
hed at the Sign of the Pot, Stephen's-green, Dublin, A.D. 1696. Dr. 
Whalev, the Author, is said to be the son of an Englishman who 
came to Ireland in Cromwell's train ; and is stated to be instrumen- 
tal in the hanging of a brother to the bard ; which circumstance 
provoked this bitter invective. We understand that there are origi- 
nal documents in the hands of a gentleman in town, relative to his 
father's arrival in Ireland ; and that many of his progenj are still 
living in Dublin. 


Astroioger Doctor Whaley, who livcd iu Stephen's Green, 
Dublin ; which is the bitterest — most wicked— and diabolical 
satire, ever written in the Irish langnage. 

The poet íirst describes the hellish practices of the Astro- 
loger, whom he describes as in league with the Devil, who 
since he began to view the moon and the planets, had, 
with his Balor-eye, destroyed their benign iníluence ; so that 
the corn-fields, the fruit-trees, and the grass had ceased to 
grow ; the birds had forgotten their songs (except the ominous 
birds of night), and the young of animals were destroyed in 
utero. He then begins to wither this Antichrist of Ireland with 
imprecations, awful in the highest degree ; implores that the 
various diseases which waste the world may attack him, and 
calls down upon his guilty head the curses of God, the angels, 
the saints, and of all good men. Dr. Whaley, however, does / 
not appear to have melted before this aeir of O'Dalv, for he 
lived to a great age, and composed more effectual lampoons on 
the Irish, than the Bards (then on the decline) had composed 
on him. His Almanacks throw much light on the history of 
the ferocious times in which he lived. See Annals qf the Four 
Masters, Ed. J. 0\D V A.D. 1414, note 1. 

Eor the amusement of the Irish reader we give this satire 
in the original Irish. 

^ojn of)0£cujn whaley. 

C|teAb ap rpftocc ijo't) cocc-r* <\]n 2>b<\e6Al]b ? 
Ja-b b'& r)-bAOftA6 'r ]^b 45 é]rbeacc; 
^3 1V MOijbAÓ n<\ locc — A5 bjioc <vo éiqg, 
U5 Antichrist t)l)AT)b&, Ooccú]n Whaley. 

C& b-ru]l n<\ bnaojre Iforbca-, 5&<\]tA ? 

C& b-f:u|l 0'21)e<\6n<\ 1 'n<\ t)<v b"él5r e * 

'Wa 5-co]llce 'c<\{& ? uó a T)-5le<\T)t>cA]b fl&]be ? 

Ho An 6 , AÓ-8nu]rn bo le^5^6 50 léjn ]<sb ! 

Ca b-r;u]I Sa6b, 2l)e<\6b, nó Oé]]tbne ? 
'Wó H^5i)A]lc bívnn<\ri)<\]l, bé-ArAc ? 
"Nó Coi)cob<\n uu<\6, rt]5 t)<\ b-£l5f e ? 
TCéjn n)<Nn 6e<\nb<\r <\ ce<\nc-l<\0] 5A0]6]h;e. 

1 Dermot O'Meara, a learned physician who lived at Bally- 
ragget, in the Countv of Kilkenny, early in the seventeenth centurv. 
He wasauthor of a worlí entitled " Hybernie Pathologia Haereditaria 


Oo fiu5 fé bAftfi 6f f)A cé<vbr-Afb, 

& b-ceAi)3^it) Óadtuv, a Í^fb^r) 'f a i)-5néi5if ; 

'S tjac ftAfb f eAft ttAt)r) t)& bAr) bo &éAT)Art), 

U béAjtfA&.ArbAir) 50 5-c&iot;eA& G'lfte ; 

Oo 5tACfA& uajó buAif r)A Aori-ftAb, 

Mo 5urt cu]rt fé caio 'f cAift Aft SbAe&tAfb, 

'S ^uft bAft)eA& at) ceAt)T) 50.1) rboftt be 1 t)-éittic ! 

CneAb bob AfHforr) A5 CAfric t)a 45 irjr)fir)c f^éAlcA ? 

D'itdci5 fúb 'f b'irticis f éirioij ; 

'S cív cuncA 50 beo f aoj ceó i)éAtcA&, 

Taoj rt)An c& f^ttfobcA A5 Ooccúfn Whaley ! 

&r) bnúib cúc<vc, cnúbAc, bnéA^ac, 
TeAn-cú gojtcAC, Ioccac, éflpeac ; 

2t)AbflA CeAl^AO, bnAT)T)AC, CftAOfAC, 

LeAbAft t)<v loóc bo cnoc at; tiAorb-OfA ! 

S&Mfqge 5 ÍWPP b'ÁgniofAó le 5éAn-$otf), 
PnefCfolUc, pufAÓ, pnfOft<\c, peAfCAC ; 
2^AbriA-AllA b^AlpAÓ 5<veótAib, 
"bbfob le feoit ^ojrje 'p ujf^e ^ttéffe, 
U5 f:lfucAÓ pACf Aige, iT)eAr)r;Ai6e, 'f é]lle. 

pAicféin r)A n-otc bo cuifieA& 50 f <vobrtAc, 
Le cleic-pnfocA ^ufbAt 5AC téAO-uitc ; 

U5 lAfinAl6 Aft AT) 5-CÚfflC tT)Aft b<V TT)élT)T) lcff, 

éA^Uif Cbftfofc bo ó^bijic Af Offtfr)!) ! 

Jf cu At) b<vn<v Pharaoh o&irbbeAC, f ftAOcba, 
2$<vti Minotaurus b'fceAt» n& 3ftéA5Af5; 
Jf rrxvft fft) ca bo nút) le 2}<\e&lAfb, 
U giofcAine at) stffcjne 'f at) bnéAí)CAff. 

CneAb é bo 5<\ot lé Jupiter, t)6 le Venus, 
1^6 le Jwíío, 'tJAn &uccAf bu^c féACAft); 
Le TtéAlcA, ptÁi rjéfbíge ita fpé<vrtcA, 
°$r)úc cú 50 fotluf at) fotuf Af Phoebus. 

Generalis sive de morbis Hsereditariis." 12mo. Dub. 1619, which is 
now very scarce. He also wrote a poem on the Earl of Gssorv, 
his chief patron, with interesting notices of the noble familv of 
Ormonde, See Harris's Ware's Writers of Ireland, p, 90. 


bb^ff; cú ao rpi ieA 5 A r £ e <*r nA 3f* e i ne ) 

Wj'l ftA]t Aft At) b-CAUrb 'f i)|Oft b-féfbfft ! 
Oo cftAod At) fA]ft5e 'r ÓeATn; t)A rpé^ncA, 
MfOjt j&|» sojic 'f bo lo|r*3 i)A féATtcA. 

Ca 5<vc cftAfji) b'éjf a coftAb bo féAt)A6, 

ftf A|]trbíiD ad c-uif^e 'dati ]rr)t]S V* b" e Tr3 *V \ 

Wf'l rOAflttAC A Uv]fl, l)& UAt) A 5-CAO]1A]5, 

Hfl U05 r)A Iagc A5 rt)Anc ] r)-6']n]i)r), 
'S rt)A c]6]n cnA]t) aI r)f béAjtf Aib ! 

]y buAi) 3<vc beAt) A3 CAO]t)e a cé]le, 
^ca 'i) G'aIa ati at) ^-caIajc 't)a r)"^ér)A|i; 
'S -piolAijt da coilte ^5 rSfieAbA 'f A5 é]ri)e, 
'S b'irncig u<v]T)n puA]rt) i)A r)-éAi)lA]c. 

Oo cu|]t cu At) bor)Af A]]t eAlc<\]b t)A b-BfiieAríT), 

]y bívlb AT) GUAC 't* t)] lAbflAT)!) AT) CftAOt)AC ; 

3Xr) lor)-bub, at) frt)oUc, 'i)A 't) cé|nfeAc, 
^i) bnu|beo5, at) f 0^065 'ha 't) pAOfSAÓ. 

?ír) f utfeó5 'f ai) fpi&eó^ 5AD aoi) rwib, 
Cá ai) colAtt) a búfcne 'f At) bur)AT) léAr)A ; 
'S i)<v bAOir)e, r;AnAO]n ! tdau ai) 5-céAbt)A, 

ClOT)r5A1T) AT) C-rÚjl Í)bAlA]tt Be]C A5 Att)A]tC t)A ttéAlcAT): 

Astrologer ó'n rnAC SDaIIagcadt) Whaley. 
Out)At> A]t bo fú]l]b 5AI) lé]]t-nor5 I 

TuACC A]]t bO clu&rA]b 5A1) 61T-C10ÓC ! 

CA]lcft) 0]tc 'r buar) bjc-cé]lle ! 

'S r)Á^TtA]b rpneA^ a i)-aIc i)A b-péfc leAC ! 

SpAba,t)Ar Ab teAt)5A]r) t)a f aJaiji lAbA]]tc bo 6éAi)<vrb, 

5ad r^w» 3^ n r^í°r? 5° f*i d &o s e *3 A ; 

S5]t]Or 1)eAT)T)CA 'r CAT)T)CA]t bé]l 0]tC, 

TjoIút) rfOT)t) ir ri^ 6A ^ v-& An >* ^r^* 

TlAbrtAr brteAC if 5aIati péjfce onc, 
bol^AC rbuc 'r bol^Ac 6at) ortc ; 
Cors fuAfl 'r r)]orcó]b clé]b oftc, 
8curvy, cft]Oc, 'r S^Uri i)a t)-Ae onc. 


TMf&o]}} 'f fonu]p <\b clj' 'f Ab 3éA5<\|b, 
ftol^AÓ fx)X\&x)x)C4.c ^b ceAno 5^0 béAb<\]b : 
LobAft 'f CAOOCAt a 3-cjoi)t) a cejle onc, 
'S 5AÓ pUi5 b& b-CA]015 &0 ' n éjsipc. 

Cof5<\]jtc Ab ceA]tc-tA]t A5 bAotA]b, 

Péjrce A5 but cjtfoc 'f Ab séAU-goto ; 

'S bo cno]C]ooo u<\]c eAbco]t]tA bA nAobA, 

Qx) lOT)Ab Óub TJUjt CU AO féAfCA. 

?\-5 Belzebub Ab rcnACAb 5 cé]le, 
^5 Cerlerus 50 n<\b<\]u a bú]cne 'f a bé]ce ; 
Or^An t)<\ fúffce A5 núf^Ab bo bnéAi)-óu]]tp, 
'S Averroes o<*> o-5A]tb-bnúcc bnéAOA. 

Si rnúo f a cac 'fA f^eacnAÓ onc a o-éfnfeACc, 
& -frnpijt n<\ locc 'fA co|l bo 6éA0A ; 
3V-0 pAjb be^óiTt beó oa ]tA]b féAO onc, 
'S 50 b-cu]c]n Ab 6aIIa*j6 o cé]le. 

&f pAbA no]ri)e bf cú a n-5<\l<\Tt éA^A, 

3o 5-CUfTl]6 ftACA T)A 5-CeATTC OTtC At) COI)T) CAOf^AC; 

Do ftfi) bo conp n)<\U<\]5ce peACA]6e bo f^éAcÓAO, 
Oo leAc bo 5e<Nc<\]óe A]]t peAb n<v b-^tteAOi). 

3X búb<\]nc cú l]i)i) Ab leAb]t<\]b é]C]5, 

3un bo cIoca 'f bo cjtofoo bo 50l6ro]b ftéAcc<\ ; 

"Nf pfou 6u]c f]n a fe<\n6]]t bnéj^e, 

&cc bo'o Uc<\]]t, bo'o 2ty<\c 'f bo'n Sp]onAb NAorócA. 

& co]blé]]t bobAtg, lobcA, 5]tAn<\, 

ftf be]6 mé a o-eA]tnA]b le<\c f ao 5-CAf fo ; 

Nf A5 plé cne]b]ri) teAc aca tné, 

&cc bA ri)olAÓ óu{c le 5u]óe gAnncA. 

2t)<\tlACC Oé OftC 'f A T)AOri)-2t)í\CA]t, 
2^aUacC T)A T)-^PfCAl 0]tC 'fAT) pl)ApA: 

2tMUcc t)A Sa^atic OTtc 'f n<\ ro-b]tACA]i, 
2Í3aUacc i)a n)-bA]i)c]teAbAc 'f t)a o-^AntAC. 

2DaUacc t)a Ia5 ottc 'f í)a tÁ]b]]t, 
2DaIIacc f fot G"AbA '^uf ^V6a]tt) 0]tc ; 
Ucá fú]t A^Aro 50 b-pA]C]ob at) Ia úb 
'fcU b-CAbAnp <\]ó O^AttTDAib 1 tt)<\ncA]5e<\cc ^xnb bujc, 
1 The Jack Ketch of his dav. 


&n beACAÓAC focA]n, focrnA, Iajiac, 

Le rxfonnóipíóe rnAjbe 'j* co|leA]i cnA]be, 

'S mA cti]C]]i a bobA]§ 50 rn-bujrceAn bo cnArttA, 

'S 50 b-cu]c]ó ]t)5ne &o cor 'r bo lArttA &|oc. 

21)a buA]lceAn ftt)A]lc onc 5e<\b<\]Ó cíi plAt/cAu, 
3V uúitta Vulcan a b-]:ocAin óo rnACAjt ; 
3o b-ce^ceAn Ann cu 50 be]ue nA n-^nAr*, 
'S n&n fójnió CUJOSO onc, nA a 2t)AcA]ri ? 

jAunA]tn r«í> <M]t ^bt^j 3*t> r*<M° lon^An bAn lu]5 be^n 
me<\n n& ónbd^, nA beAn^nAjc ^ob onc, 5<vn bun bo cjnn 
A5 ]*]le a^aj* a 5nA]c-f]le ; a^aj* cu Ab lu]be A]n WbA 
A]C]nn a rnAO|l]nn r*le]be a rn-beAl bojiu|f ^An corblAb ; 
T/eACc tníle o Aen cA]bn]otn, acc CA]bn]orn fAolcon, 
leó^An, A5A]» leopanb ; a^a]* 3AIT bo bn<sc x^V) °I* C 
acc T/5^0]lceo5 ]*t)AÓrnAc bo ^ojbpjó cú ; bo conp bo 
geAbAT* bAj* lejf An rn-bohjAC "pnAnncAC ! 

Nf beA5 h on > T° Aflojr *>o uáó leAc, 

2^au ]]* buACA]U bocc rrte ca lojr^ce, crtA]óce ; 

beo A]n é]5in bé|r rno cA]]tbe, 

3V'r wz ^n feArt, oo]tcA, rnAC CbontnA]c Uf OliAlAjg. 

^. 1 

The last satire, lampoon or burlesque of any note composed 
in the Irish language, was written in 1713, by UobA^An 
0'nAC5A]lle 2 (Egan O'Bahillv), a Munster poet, on an in- 
dustrious farmer and tax-gatherer in Kerry, named Tadhg 
Dubh O'Croinin [Teige Duff O'Cronin], the ancestor, in the 
female line, of the Cronins of the Park, near Killarney. 
In this burlesqne, 0'Eahil]y traces the pedigree of O'Cronin 
in thirteen generations to the devil ! ! This outrageous lam- 
poon was intended by its anthor to ridicnle the iUiterate ple- 
beian families planted in Ireland by Cromwell, and such of the 
native Irish as nnited with them in oppressing the old Irish 
race who were permitted to live on the lands of tlieir ancestors, 
in cabins not worth more than thirty shiUings per annum. 

1 In other copies this line reads : — 

tíA ceil]5íóe ttt'attittt) T:eATt boTtcA 0*t5AUj5. 

2 For a sketch of the life of Egan O'Rahillj, see The Poets and 
Poetry of Munster, (second edition) p. 21, Dub. 1850. 

The copy selected for publication was made by a Munster 
scribe named Quinlivan, about A. D. 1770, and is the best 
we remember having ever seen. But the publisher not being 
altogether satisfied with the correctness of its text, applied to 
the Council of the Roval Irish Academv, for permission to 
compare it with any copies which may be in their library ; and 
that body, with the spirit which animates all true Irishmen and 
loversofthe literature of their countrv and race, immediately 
responded to his call, by placing all their MSS. before him 
for this purpose ; and he feels bound to sav that, in their col- 
lection he found three copies of the poem, in which he found 
several stanzas not in his own, nor in anv other copy he ever 
met with. 

Professor Connellan also gave permission to use a very good 
copy of the poem which he made from one compared and 
corrected by the famous old schoolmaster and scribej — Peter 
O'Connell of Xilrush, who flourished from about 1780 to 
1824 ; — the original of which, is now in the library of Lord 
George Augusta Hill, of Ballvane House, County of Donegal — 
thus leaving on record for posteritv, whatever its fate may be, 
the best copy of O'DaVs satires extant. 

It is necessarv, liowever, to inform the reader that we have 
arranged the different quatrains of the whole satire under 
proper heads — the verses relating to Connacht are first in con- 
secutive order ; and next come those of Leinster, of the families 
of which province our author said but verv little. Next comes 
the portion relating to Ulster, where he seems to have made 
several journeys; and last of all we have placed the portion 
relating to Munster — his native province — and where he lost 
his life by the hand of a Tipperarv O'Meagher, to whom the 
knife and sword were equally familiar. 


8, Newcomen Place, North Strand, 
Dublin, January, 1852. 

216M5US 0'<D2ll2iJ5, Cgfe. 

CU)t> CVi0t)t)4CZ VOT)t). 

2l)u^q|l 'pblOÓTJACA T)A rv]o\)t), 
21 b-t^u]! bpb f ]Otvt), A^up bub ; 
Jf rrjón at> ceAt)t)AC An a Tti-b]A8, 
2i b-cu^A^b tja 6]A^5 bo guc. 

21tiat) jirj&e A^uf r^h 

V\) : JOT'A1 l T)T) ACC &OTT)' A|TT)6eO]T); 

5^6eA8 if e^s^T) cutt)at,Ic leif, 
Ó itac ^bin ceAcc CAinif. 

2í)u|T)cin 6oIait* att úju cait^ 
Lucc at) CT)eAiT)A bu]5, bAnn-^lA]]* ; 
0]ueAÓc 5AT) auat), ^att irr>, 
Lottj^]* 5AÓ cuA]lle cu]l]irri ! 

1 Muintir-Fhidhnacha, i.e, the family of Fenagh, or Fidhnacha 
Muighe-Rein, in the County of Leitrim. These were the 0'Rody's 
or O'Roddachans, who were Comharbas of St. Caillin in the Church 
of Fidhnach. They are of the same race as the Mac Rannalls. 

2 Of relic's (T)A ttjtotjtj). The O'Rodachains of Fidhnach, had 
several remarkable relics in their possession before Cromweli's 
time, such as bells, sacred standards, and the shrine of St. Caillin, 
who was the founder and patron of their Church. A verv remark- 
able Bell called Clog-na-righ, i.e., the Bell of the Kings, which be- 
longed to this familv, is still preserved. See Annals of the Four 
Masters, Ed. J.O'D., A.D. 1244, note 17. 

An ancient vellum MS. which also belonged to this familv, is 
still preserved near the Church of Fidhnach, and a very ancient 
copy in the British Museum, and a modern copy on parchment in 
the Library of the Royal Irish Academy. See the Miscellany of the 
Irish Archceological Society, vol. I. pp. 115, 117, 118, for some ac- 
count of Tadhg O Rodachain, or O'Rodv, the head of this family in 
1688, who had alarge collectionof Irish Antiquities and Manuscripts. 

The Coarb and Herenach families of Ireland looked upon them- 
selves as of the rank of gentlemen, and were often remarkable for 
hospitalitv. This Thady Roddy of Fidhnach, says of himself in his 
letter to Lhwyd, written in May 1700. "I Thady Roddy that 
writes this have written [the pedigrees of] all the familyes of the 
Milesian race from this present age to Adam, tho' none of the race 
of Antiquaryes, btjt a gentleman that has more ancient books of 
lreland, and that learned, and understands them as well at least, as 
any now in Ireland, or any where, all which paines I take for my 
countryes sake, for my owne satisfaction, and to preserve so noble 
and singular a monument of honor and antiquity.'* Ibid, pp. 120, 



The family of Eidhnach 1 of relics, 2 
Such of them as are fair, and black, 
'Tis a dear purcha^e for their food, 
How they grumble after giving it. 

Shrove-tide bread 3 and flesh, 
I would not eat but against my will ; 
Yet it is necessary to lav to it, 
As it cannot be avoided. 4 

Muintir Eolais 5 of the barren soil, 
People of the soft, green, wild garlic f 
A horde without corn, or cattle, 
Who strip each holly tree. 7 

For more iuformation on this subject, the reader is referred to 
Ussher's tract on Corbes, Erenachs, and Termon lands, published in 
the secondnumber of Vallancey's Collectanea, Colgan's Trias Thaum. 
p. 630, 631, and Lanigan's Ecclesiastical Historv of Ireland, vol. n. 
p. 37, and vol. iv. p. 30. 

3 Shrove-tide bread, i.e., pancakes. 

4 As it cannot be avoided, i.e., because I had nothing else to get. 

5 Muintir-Eolais, i.e., the tribe of Eolas, son of Biobhsach, and 
twenty-fourth in descentfrom Conmhac, ancestorof the Conmhaicne 
of Magh-Rein. After the establishment of hereditary surnames, 
the chief family of this sept took the surname of Mag Raghnaill, 
now Magrannell and Reynolds. Their territory comprised the 
entire of all Magh-Rein, or the southern and level portion of the 
present County of Leitrim. The late Squire Reynolds, who was 
murdered at Sheemore, in the County of Leitrim, was the last head 
of this family. His daughter Mary Anne Reynolds, alias Mac 
Namara of Lough-scur house, is the only surviving person of his 
family. Her grandson on becoming of age will take the name of 
Peyton Revnolds. John Reynolds, Esq, M.P., is of their race, but 
his pedigree has not yet been traced. 

6 Wild garlic, ctjeATb, or ctieAiij ; is still the living word for wild 
garlic, or gentian, in Ireland ; and in the Highlands of Scotland. 

7 Strip each holly tree. The bark of the holly, and also of the 
elder-tree, was given to children with voracious appetites, "to strait- 
en their guts.'' This is told of step-mothers in various parts of 
Ireland. The H&pX&c Co|leívt)Ac was wont to tell his father that 
his guts were not yet narrowed enough from the bark, for the quan- 
tity of bread he could lick oíf the flag given him by his step-mother, 
who used place a thin flag in the centre of the cake which she baked 
for his breakfast. 


2lc& at) ceAÓ toaii i)ac cub<\|8, 
'CeAÓ Cb^cAjl Uj Cb°r)cubA]Ti ; 
CIat)T) a't* beAT) a T)-ATT)5An at)t), 
'CeAC 5AT) Anb<vn, 5AT) at)T)Iat)1). 

21t) blADAl f! eATt TT)ATtbcA TDA-TtC, 
CíV A T)1U A 5-CUv|t CbOT)T)ACC ; 

2lcc locA||te beA^ 6 CbnuACA]i) Cbu|i)i), 
9X'y focAine eile ó LiAc-bnujn?. 

)X t)eAC Afll Afl CU1C A1) C-T*eAT)-TÍ)<vllACC,^ 

JW>it*ttd &u]c 50 jrolUf. — 

«D'-pAT^AÓ A Síol 21t)TT)CAÓA, 
2Tt* Tf*TteAT)T) Afl A CUTT)AT*. 

2t)^T* An 5U&6 bo 2t)bui|te tt)6iti, 
<t)o grrjb aot) cujb 't)a b-OT)6in; 
<t)& TT)-biAÓ A5 &u]i)e bA T)-beACAi8, 
Bta]8 2t)uine A5 tja 2t)&ii)eAÓATD. 

J Cathal O'Conor, Charles O'Conor of Ballintober Castle, in the 
County of Roscommon. 

2 Dririk. 2U)Iaí)i) is the latin obsonium, i.e., what the low Irish 
and the Lowland Scotch call kitchen, i.e., any victuals eaten with 
bread, &c. Armstrong, savs in his Gíelic Dictionarv, that Ann- 
lann expresses all the more substantial eatables, ab ovo usgue ad ma- 
la. In Ireland it means kitchen stuff, or any kind of soup, broth, 
dip, or blind herring, that enables one to swallow bread or potatoes. 
See the Letter of Julius Vindex. A boy in the South of Ireland was 
heard to say, that he would not ask better AnnUnn with his pota- 
toes than blind herring, that is, salt and water ; and the same vouth 
frequentlv swallowed lumpers and this luxurious soup, until he had to 
be tied with a rope to prevent him from bursting. 

3 The plain of Connacht. This was, and is still, the name of a 
spacious and fertileplain extending from Roscommon to Elphin, and 
from Strokestownto Castlerea, in the County of Roscommon. But 
the bard evidently intends the term to denote all the rich plains of 

4 Plunderer of Cruachain,i.e., O'Conor Don. 

5 Snouty of Leitrim, i.e., 0'Rourke of Leitrim Castle, at thistime 
a very stout rebel. This was Brian Oge, who died in 1604. His 
father, Brian na Murtha, was hanged and beheaded in London, A.D. 
1591, and his head set up on a spike over London Bridge, as one of 
the " Lcesa Mqjestatis capita." 

* In another copy. 

1r bujne fotjA f>eAn)r»Ai*e, 
fío cni'15 bocc An bujle ; 
t^o n^cAÓ 50 Siol ^lnnjcA)- « 
2lr iwefivn An <v 5ome. 


The house is not in meet condition, 
The house of Cathal OTonor, 1 
Children and wife are in distress there, 
A house without corn, or drmk. 2 

The devil a Jdller of beeves, 
Is this day in the Plain of Connacht, 3 
Except the small plunderer of Cruachain, 4 
And another snouty of Leitrim. 3 

He is a person on whom the old curse has fallen,- 

I tell it to vou openljj — 

Who would remain in Sil-Anmchadha, 6 

And Hell at his command. 

If it be for love of the great Marv, 
Thev make but one meal in her honour ; 
If any one that ever departed got to see her, 
shall enjov her [companv]. 

He is an evil demoníac wight, 
Or a poor mad wretch ; 
Who would eo to Sil-Anmchv, 
And hell within his reach. 

6 SU Anmchadha, i.e. } the race of Anmchadh, or Animosus. This 
was the tribe-name of the O'Maddens, whose territorv comprised 
the baronj of Longford, in the Countv of Gahvav, and the parish of 
Lusma in the King's Countv. Sir Frederick Madden of the British 
Museum, andDr. R. R. Madden, author of The Lives and Times of 
ihe United Irishmen, are of this race. See Tribes and Customs ofHy- 
many, for the pedigree of the senior branches of this familv. 

7 Manians, i.e., the people of Hy-Many, or as some have called 
them, ofhigh mania, and others <e the sons of suck." These were the 
descendants of Maine Mor, the fourth in descent from Colla Da 
Chrich, son of Eochaidh Doimhlen, son of Cairbre Liffeachair, mo- 
narch of Ireland in the third centurv. After the establishment of 
surnames, the chief familv of this sept took the surname of O'Ceal- 
laigh (O'Rellv), from Ceallach, the fourteenth in descent írom 
Maine Mor. See Tribes and Customs of Hy-Many, p. 97. Denis 
Henrr Kelly, of Castlekellv, Esq., is the present chief of this fa- 
mily, and next to him in point of senioritv is Count 0'Kelly of Mon- 
tauban, in the South of France. Conor 0'Kelly of Ticoolev, Esq., 
who is by descent a Count of the Holy Roman Empire, is the repre- 
sentative of the famous familv of the 0'Kellys, who were formerlv 
seated at Gallagh, now Castle Blakeney, in the Countv of Galwaj/ 


Cloc Ajt ÍAfAÓ a irj-bAfnrje at) TT)foi)-eAllAT5, 

Le]f at) rtrjT) rt)A jeibceATi é ; 

21 beiji at) c-AT)bfATiT) bo f fol 5-CeAÍl^ij, 

" )f TT)ATC AT) C-AT)1)lAT)T) &AflfTA15 é." 

jAfrrtATb crjo au coillcjb fAilig, 
)a|itiai6 lof i)5eAr ati Loc Cé ; 
Jatitiaió coTce ati ah 5-CATt|tA]5, 
)y fATtrtATÓ cofce Aft AiDUfb e. 

ClAT)t) KfOCA]fTfe CAft éff* Afpttfm), 
í)ul b*A b-cf5Cfb T)] Ab^vfTi ffAb ; 

^DeACAjTt bÚftTT) bul bV b-CAt:AT)t), 

CAOfjte le b-ucc AbArjt) f Ab. 

CIath) HfocAfnb ó beftTT) 50 befrjT), 
O CbfU CboftbÁ]T) 50 Buf ft]T)t) ; 

ScfOCATtbAf^ ]\ e A T)-A1T)1TT), 
KfOCA|tbAf5 A b-TTOTT A1T)fTT). 

1 Goats* milh, bA]T)T)e at) TT)ioT).eAlU]5, literally, milk of the small 
cattle. 2t)|OT)-eAllAc, i.e., the pecudes, goats or sheep, contradistin- 
guished from the TT»ón-eAlUc, i.e., cows. The imbecile chief of the 
0'Kelly's here referred to, was probably Hugh Caech 0'Kelly of 

2 Loch Ce, now Lough Key, a beautiful lake with several islands, 
in the barony of Boyle, County of Roscommon, near the margin 
of which stands Rocldngham, the magnificent residence of Lord 

3 The Carrich, (ie., the Rock), i.e., Carraig Locha Ce. This was 
the name of Mac Dermot's chief Castle, which is situated on a small 
island in Lough Key. From this Lord Lorton formed the name 
Rockingham for his mansion. See a view of Mac Dermot's Rock, or 
Carraig-Locha Ce t in Doctor O'Conor's suppressed work, Memoirs 
qfthe Lifeand Writings of Charles O'Conor of Belanagare. 

The allusion here to the absence of ships on Lough Key looks 
obscure enough. By Loingeas, however, is meant a fleet of boats, 
not of ships, as the word is now understood. At the present day a 
Connacht gentleman would call his boats on any of the great lakes, 
such as Lough Corrib, Lough Mask, or Lough Key, his "fleet." The 
bard wishes here to insinuate that there was no cot or ferryboat 
kept at Caladh Locha Ce, by order of Mac Dermot, in order that 
no bard, minstrel, beggar, or any of the lucc jAttnACA T)e]c, might be 
able to get across to his ceAc T)-AojóeAó !! 

The present head of the family of Mac Dermot of Carrick, is the 
Prince cf Coolavin, for an account of whose familv the reader is 


A red-hot stone in goats' milk/ 
With the meal if it be got ; 
Says the imbecile of the race of Ceallach, 
" It is a good dainty in Spring." 

Seeking for acorns on willow trees a 
Seeking for ships on Loch Ce; 2 
Seekii;g for a cot at the Carrick, 3 
Is like seeking wealth from an oaf. 

The Clann Rickard after mass, 

"Will not ask you to their houses; 4 

It is difficult for us to go to bark at them, 

They are sheep facing the river. 

The Clann-Rickard from end to end, 
l'rom Xilcorban 5 to Burren ; 6 
Stickards [misers] is their [true] name, 
Rickards their nickname ! 

referred to Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Charles O'Cunor 
of Be/anagare, pp. 305, 306. 

4 To their houses. In other copies the reading is : — 

"21 t»-c]5ce £éji) reActiAio tiad," 
" Their own houses they shun.*' 

5 Cill-Chorbain, i.e., the Church of St. Corban, now Rilcorban, in 
the parish of Tjnagh, barony of Leitrim, and Countj of Galwav. 
It contains the ruins of St Corban's Church. See Ordnance map, sh. 

6 Burren. bumíM^» from bofitt great, and otjtj a stone, i.e., rockj 
district, now Burren, a baronj forming the northern portion of 
the County of Clare, remarkable for its limestone rocks. It formed 
the southern boundarj of Clanrickard, which comprised the baro- 
niesof Leitrim, Loughrea, Dunkellin, Riltartan, Clare, and Athenrj, 
in the Countj of Galwaj. The Clan-Rickard are the descendants 
of Rickard Mor De Burgo, son of William Fitz-Adelm, who died, in 
the jear 1205, and who was usuallj called William the Conqueror, 
bj lrish Writers, as having conquered the province of Connacht. 
If our author had known the character given of Fitz-Adelm, by his 
contemporv, Giraldus Cambrensis, he could have referred to it here 
with eífect against the Burkes of Clanrickard, í( semper in insidiis, 
semper in dolo, semper propinans sub melle venenum, semper latens 
anguis in herba. Hibernia Expugnata lib. n. c. xvi. "He died im- 
penitently, without shrine, or extreme unction, or good burial in 
any church iu the ldngdome, but in a waste town.'' Annals of Clon. 


2t)ucA búbA CblA]t;i)e §eo]\f]t) } 
2t)A]]t]b u]le acc bAftjt a 5-cluAf* ; 

2t)A]]teAT)T) Al T1A CjtATTAC TIUAÓ, 

O cac 2t)F)A]5e ^ 11 ^!! 16 ATiUAf . 

<t)o bAÓAf oi6ce 3AI) b]j, 

21 b-c]5 at) 5bl°M-A-S u ]b, 'x 5AT; b]Ab ; 

M] bu]6eAc t:eATt aotí uA]fte. 

21 t>-3o]tc jTTTi]*e-5uA]Tte ]t]ATÍ?. 

CtAT)T)A TVJ05, T)0 TtO-t*lACA; 
2ÍCA T']b-t;e fAOft, TTTATt fO]T), 
1Í]0]t AO]t TT>]fe bÚTt TT)ACO]Tt. 

21 Cloc att t-cua]C]t) ! a Cl)ú]]tc 5AT) ceATTT) ! 

Le'jt TT)eAT*AT* TTTO CÚl bO CUTt ; 

«D'a J)-10T)t)fA]5e trjOTt ÓoIca óattt, 
21t; Cloc 't;a TT)-bT at; 50TICA A]t 50-ft ! 

1 TAe Clann-Jennin, CUvv Seo-\i)ív, now the family of Jennings. 
They descend from Seow'w, r Little John Burke and Nuala na 
Meadoige, daughter of O'Madden, the cTt&]t? T>ua*S or red sow, here 
referred to. 

2 The tops of their ears, i.e., being torn oíf by the dogs. This is 
clearly íigurative. 

3 Magh Guaire, i.e., Guaire's plain, a level district, in the territory 
of Kinel Guaire,near Rinvara, in the Countyof Galway. See Har- 
diman's Edition of Iar-Connacht, p. 332. The date of this battle has 
not yet been determined. 

4 Gilhjduff, i.e., the black wight, or youth. This was the cogno- 
men of Sir Roger 0'Shaughnessy, who died in the year 1569. He 
was not therefore living when this poem was composed. See Tribes 
&c. of Hy-Fiachrach, p. 376. 

5 Gort-innse-Guaire, i.e., the garden of Guaire's holm or island, 
so called from Guaire Aidhne, king of Connacht in the seventh cen- 
tury. This is the present Irish name of the town of Gort, in the 
barony of Kiltartan, and County of Galwav, formerly the chiefresi- 
dence of 0*Shaughnessy. 

6 Great chieftains. Our author is here rather severe against 
0'Shaughnessy of Gort-innse-guaire, — " cujus nobilitatem antiquita- 
tem et integritatem, qui non novit, Hiberniam non novit," See Hy- 
Fiachrach p. 373, and who boasted that he was the heir of Guaire 
Aidhne, king of Connacht, who was the personification of hospitality 
and generosity among the Irish poets, Ioidip. 391. 

According to tradition, on calling at the castle of Gort, the Red 
Bard found the Lady of 0'Shaughnessy only, at home, who paid him 
no attention whatever ; but on the arrival of her sons, she informed 
them of the Bard's departure, and they set out after him to bring 


The bkck hogs of the Clann-Jenning, 1 
All survive except the tops of their ears ; 2 
The litter of the red sow have lived, 
Since the battle of Magh-Guaire 3 downwards, 

I was a night without drink/ 
In the house of Gillv-duff, and without food ; 
An occasional visitor is never thankful, 
At Gort Innse-Guaire 5 at any time. 

I satirize but good women, 

The sons of kings or great nobles ; 6 

Ye are therefore free, 

I have not satirrzed your mother. 7 

O Cloch an stuaicin ! 8 O Court without a roof ! 
To wliich I had intended to turn my back ; 
To visit it I should not have gone, 
The stone-fortress in which famine was hatching ! 

him back. He would not however return with them, and then being 
asked whether he had satirized their mother for her inattention to 
him, he replied in the words of our text, I satirize, &c. 

7 Your mother. She was the Lady Honora Ny-Brien, as nobly 
born a woman as the Bard ever had the honour of raising the ceoftA 
reAttbA on her cheek. But in her youth she had embraced a religi- 
ous life, and became abbess of the nunnery of Killoan, near the town 
of Clare, in the barony of Islands ; but from this seclusion she ran 
off with Sir Roger O'Shaughnessv, by whom she had one son and 
one daughter, before they could procure a dispensation for their 
marriage. Thus was she vulnerable to the Bard's lampoon, but he 
was by far too severe. Later chiefs and members of the same family 
have also been rather unfortunate in their choice of wives, and have 
been severely lashed by the Bards, as Colonel William 0'Shaughnessy, 
who went to France after the Revolution, where he died in 1744, 
and whose wife, the daughter of Lord Clare, lived with her own 
butler, William Boy [Buidhe] 0'Kelly, after 0'Shaughnessy's de- 
parture, and of whom one of our Bards has written : — 

" ^l beAf) bo FOAifi' x'A]t 5Ac Tijr)A &o ro^A xja b-peAft, 
0'SeAcbT)ArA]5 At) &T5, x^-txjac ci^eAti^A Ai) 51lU||tc, 
21 tíjaIa 5at) T)A|tie, ir T)Am TTiAti &'e]tiT5 óufc ! 

2ÍV C-rttACAtt ATlAlft&e A TJ-AlC TIA &]AllA]be ottc !" 

MS., R.I.A.,—Hodges and Smith's Collection, No. 37, 4, p. 259. 

8 Cloch-an-stuaicin, i-e., the stone, or stone-fortress, of the small 
projection, out-jutting (rcuA]c) point, or pinnacle ; now Cloghastoo- 
keene near Loughrea, in the parish of Kilconickny, barony of 
Dunkellin, and County of Galway. It was the seat of a branch of 
the Burkes of Clanrickard, and extensive ruins of a Castle are still 
to be seen there. See Ord. map, sheet 105. 



2ln r)-bul bArr> 50 <t>úr) Sat^ajI, 
2t)o t/unrA]r)i) Iai) atj Ia ]*]t) ; 

JAjt feAT)5AÓ 'V&T) bÚl) fjT) bATT), 

2t)o ceAi)i)AÓ 6 fo]?> r)íojt tréAbAÓ. 

2t)A'r A3 b]b]uc beArrior) CAjrrf^, 
2t)<vc CÍ)AlpTui]T)T) cau fAjle AT)0]n ; 
M]on 6|bin fé t)A beAri)0]t) 50 lé]u, 
21'f cIat)!) 5l oou 1t) cau a é]r c-ro]n ! 

?\| í nAib IúaÓ a r)-6]n]r)r) A]n, 
'S t)] nA]b ioiduaó a r)-2llbAir) ; 
<t)o n]t)e tt)é leAf 11] T^lA^tM), 
"Níon b-t;eAr é tt)ut)a T)-Aouf A]i)t) ! 

puAnAi* a t)-bíreA|tc IX] T-bl^ltWj 
poige 6 i)Án bnjóeAC rrv^rntqTir) ; 
élblAT)T) 'f At) 5-qll bo co]jice, 

'S A b-At)1)lA1)T) Jg^itj A8A]]tCe. 

1 Dunsandail (bút) Satj&aiO, i.e., Sandal's Z)wrc, or earthen-fort, 
now Dunsandle near Loughrea, in the County of Galwav, the exten- 
sive demesne of James Daly, now Lord Dunsandle. At the period 
to which the text refers, it belonged to a branch of the Clanrickard 

2 Dun, i.e., an earthen fort ; but the word is here used in the sense 
of seat or residence. 

3 The son of Calphurn, i.e., St. Patrick, the Apostle of Ireland. 
" Patrem habui Calpornium diaconum filium quondam Potiti pres- 
byteri." Confessio S. Patricii. 

4 Clann- Gibbon, our author here unquestionably alludes to the 
Clann-Gibbon, who were seated in Iar- Umhall, to the west of the 
mountain of Croaghpatrick, or the Reek, in the barony of Murresk, 
County of Mayo. According to all the Lives of the Irish Apostle, 
he remained for forty days and forty nights on this lofty mountain, 
which was then infested by malignant demons, who opposed his 
progress in preaching the Gospel in this dreary region, but whom 
he drove thence headlong into the sea. Some of them, however, 
took their flight across the bay of Donegal, and took up their abode 
in the gloomy valley of Glencolumbkille, where they remained 
undisturbed until finally expelled by the great Thaumaturg, St. 
Columbkille. The Gibbons, who dwell around this mountain, have 
been at all times remarkable for their incorrigible tendency to cat- 
tle-houghing, and other barbarous crimes, which suggested to our 
author, that they were real demons, and according to some of the 
Bards of the West, they are descended from Crom Dubh, the chief of 
the Demons expelled from the Reek, who returned to Lag na 
n-Deamhon, after the death of St. Patrick, and married Barrdubh, 
the daughter of Balor Bemeann. 


When I arrived at Dunsandle, 1 
My girth was full that day; 
But after getting slender in that dun* 
I could never thereafter be filled. 

If it were to banish demons, [brine ; 

The son of Calphurn 3 carne from the east across the 
He did noí, banish all the demons, 
As the Clann-Gibbon 4 are here still. 

In Eirin he was not noticed, 

Neither was he spoken of in Alba ; 

I have promoted O'Flvn's welfare, 

He would remain untnown had I not satirized him. 

I got in OTrvnn's desert, 

A pittance for which my mind was not thankful ; 

An oaten wafer in the church, 

And its covering of horn bulter. 6 

Patriclt Gibbon, commonlj called, the Bard of the West, on hear- 
ing this quatrain repeated, objected to its metre, and said that it 
should read as follows : — 

2í)ív 5 r i3o óíbiítc tja T)-beATÍ)OT) 6 eifiiOT), 
CAif)i5 tt)ac CTiAlpnuiT)ii cAtt vA]le ; 

"HÍOTt Ólbltt r& 1AÍ3 50 lélft UA]T)T), 

2l'r CUt)T) 5blobú]T) a t).Utt)<xII XX) 2í)l)íV|Ue. 
If it were to banish the demons from Eirin, 
The son of Calphrun came over the brine, 
He did not banish them all from us, 
As the Clann-Gibbon are in O'Mallev's Umhall. 

But Thibbot of the brandy, a famous satirist of this race, alwavs 
boasted that the Gibbons of Connacht were of the race of William 
Fitz-Adelm, the ancestor of the Burkes. 

5 In the Church. This was the Church of Eas Dachonna, on the 
river Boyle, near the town of Boyle, in the County of Roscommon. 
It is now called Eas- Ui-Fhlainn (anglice Assylin), from the family 
of 0'Flyn, who were hereditary Comharbas of St Dachonna Mac 
Eirc. See Annals of the Four Masters, Ed. J.O'D., A.D. 1209, 
p. 162, note s -j and Á.D., 1222, p. 203, note n , where some strange 
errors of Ware and Colgan respecting this Church are corrected. 
The word r<>i5e in the second line of this quatrain, is explained by 
0'Reilly, " A voluntary contribution given to such of the decent 
poor as are ashamed to beg. It also signifies the four flrst of the 
corporal works of mercy." 

6 Horn-hutter, or butter from 'a horn. The Bard here seems to 
suggest that O'Flvn's butter was so scant, as that it was preserved 
in a horn ; or perhaps that it was gathered for him by beggars, 
who usually had a large cow-horn for carrving therein the small 
bits of butter they obtained here and there as alms. See &IC1I5AÓ 
at) bbACAi5, MS. Litig. Hib. in our collection. 


C]ll Cl)0|tb&]r) AT) Ó]ll ]*] fjAft, 

]]* TT)A]]t5 A TIACAÓ A b]A8 ^T^V T)A b]tO]T)T) J 

2i]tAi> ]]* catja 't)A Ia]tvt) &]X7i> 

'S ttjati eAc t*eAr)5A]T) A]t nie]]* bo 5e]biT)t>. 

B]tA]c]te ^t)A]5i)e ]f tt;a]c -pA TboTurjOTjc, 

Jf TT)A]C fA 5AC \j\ T)AC 5~CA]C ]*]Ab ; 

<DA feAT)6]]t A]t]*A]8, ATJTjbf AT)T), 

J]* 1T)A]C £& CAT , T)U]6e bVblA]T)T) ]Ab. 

B]tA]C]te AT) ClA]]t ]]* ]Ab A be]]t]iTk 

C]téAb ]?a 5-ce]lt:]t)T) a Iocca? 

2lt) b]teAlT) C]OC]tAC, clAT)T)-TT)6]t, 
215 A TU-b] 5A1)t)-5l6]t T)A 50]tCA ! 

Cttjb t-dije^í). 

SÓ5 ]]* T:eA]t]t b*A b-]*UAnAT- f*6]% 
21 LA]5T)]b, ir;6]be a tt/jotjó]* • 
3AbA]t CTIUA5 a b-c]5 11] Bbtto]^ 
'S 5AT) Iua8 au 8] 5 tja 6eA50]8. 

1 Kilcorban, see note 5 , p. 39. supra. 

2 Maighin, i.e., the Abbey of Moyne, near Killala, in the barony of 
Tirawley, County of Mayo. The magnificent ruins of this Abbey 
are still extant in excellent preservation. It was built for Francis- 
cans of the strict observance, by Mac William Eighter De Burgo, 
A.D. 1460, and suppressed in the 37 th of Elizabeth. See Archdall's 
Monast. Hib. 

3 The friars of Clare, near the town of Galwav, where the magni- 
ficent ruins of a Franciscan monastery are still to be seen. See 
Archdall's Monasticon Hibernicum, pp. 277, 278. 

4 Large families. This does not mean that the friars had numerous 
families or children of their own, though the original text might 
well bear that interpretation ; but that their numerous poor relations 
looked to them for support, as at the present day. 

5 0'Byrne's Oountry comprised the entire of the barony of New- 
castle, with that portion of the barony of Arklow, lying north of 
Inbhear Daoile, in the County of Wicldow. The last chief of the 
senior branch of this family mentioned in the Irish Annals, was Teige 


Ejlcorban 1 this church to the west { 
Alas ! for him who would get its food in his belly : 
Bread that is thinner than the fins of a fish, 
And like a pismire's steed, on a dish I got it. 

The friars of Maighin 2 are liberal of wormwood, 
They are liberal of every thing which they do not use ; 
Two decrepid very feeble seniors, 
Who are hberal of the crumbs of their wafers. 

The friars of Clare, 3 — it is they I mention, — 
Why should I conceal their faults ? 
The greedy group with large families/ 
Who have the penurious grumbling of famine. 


The daintiest dish I got as yet, 

Among the Leinstermen, the more their disgrace ; 

A lean goat in the house of 0'Byrne/ 

And no mention of drink after it ! ! 

Oge O'Bvrne of Newragh (aij 1ub|tAc), who died in 1578, leaving 
eight sons ; but from this period forward this senior branch of the 
0'Byrnes was eclipsed by the superior power, fame and importance, 
of that of Fiach 0*Byrne, the head of the Gaval-Ranall O'Bvrnes of 
Ballinacor Castle, which is probably the house here referred to by 
our Bard. A reference to Spenser will shew that this powerful leader 
of the 0'Byrnes, was attackedby more efficient satirists than Aenghus. 
Eudoxus. u Surely I can commend him, that being of himselfe of so 
meane condition, hath through his own hardiness lifted himself up to 
the height that he dare now front princes, and make tearmes with 
great potentates ; the which as it is to him honourable, so it is to them 
disgracefull, to be bearded of such a base varlet of late growne out of 
the dunghill." &c. This Fiach defeated Lord Grey at Glenmalure, 
in 1580, but in 1597, the tough old rebel was run to earth like a 
hunted fox, and killed in a cave at Farraneren, by Captain Thomas 
Lee, commander of Rathdrum fort, who induced Fiach's wife to 
betray him and his sons. He was succeeded by his son Feilim. 


'Cuac U] K]A5^t) t>a rtua^ b-z<s]Y, 
tucc at> crjeAtiiA bu^, b^nn-^UTf ; 
0]]teAcc 5AT) AjtAr), 5AI) irn, 
LoTDAr" 5AC cuAille cuillii)T}. 

2I5 r*ub cu^A^b at) CaUdac ! 
'Na bu]rvne buACAC, TbíocAnbAC ; 
<Dau leAc ip 5atÍ7T)ac ^aIajti, 
21t) CAlbAÓ O'CorjcAbAirt. 

2t)Att) fjl An lofA^b buor)t)-Ainb, 
21 b-^5 at) Cl)AlbA|5 cúl-nu<vjó; 
S^eAlpAjitiAC le céAbAjb feAubA ! 
'S 50 ti)-Í)A]T)r:eAÓ fúb rr)A]nb at- uA]g ! 

<DeAlbr)A cuuai8, cueAc-lorn, ctiArtiAc, 
2licrne gob-lorn, JeArtÁrjAc; 
<Da b-fA§Ai irn í)eAlbt)A 50 crtujrjr), 
«Do cuinjíirrn letr/ ÓeAjirjA a S|or)U]r)T> ! 

1 TAe Cantred of Iregan (Tuath TJi Riagain), i.e., the Countrv, 
Tuath, or District, of the Ui Riagain ; now variouslv called Doohv 
Regan, Oregan, Iregan, O'Dunne's Countrv, or the barony of Tina'. 
hinch. It is situated at the foot of Sliabh Bladhma, in the north-west 
of the Queen's County. The O'Dunnes had the tribe-name of Ui- 
Riagain, from Riagan the great-grandfather of Donn, from whom 
they took their hereditary surname in the tenth century. Colonel 
Francis Dunne of Brittas, M.P., is the present head of this family. 

2 Of feeble incursions. This is to reverse the character of this 
sept as given by O'Heerin, in his Topographical Poems, in which 
he speaks as follows s — 

2ltt Ujb U|A5ív]t) tja riUA5 fc-criOTi),— 
5-ArttA úieAtt TTjujóeAT cotiilATin, — 
Cujr?5 tiA 5-criAO]i"eAC s'-CAc-onóA. 

Over the Ui-Riagain of the heavy incursions, 
A swift tribe who rout in the battle ; 
Is O'Dunne, cbief of the demolition, 
Hero of the golden battle spears. 

3 Wild Garlic. See note 6 , p. 35 supra. 

4 The holly tree. See note 7 , p. 35 supra. 

5 Calbhach O'Conehabhair, i.e., Calvagh, or Charles O'Conor of 
Offalv, Ring's County. Brian O'Conor Faly (the son of Cathair, 


The cantred of Iregan 1 of the feeble incursions/ 
The people of the soft, green, wild garlic; 3 . 
A horde without bread, without butter, 
Who strip each holly tree. 4 

Here comes to you the Calbhach, 
A useless, haughtv, sapling ; 
You would think him a sickly stripper, 
The same Calbhach O'Conchobhair. 5 

A handful of seed in a deep trough, 
In the house of the red-headed Calbhach : 
Such tearing of discordant [harp] strings ! 
Which would raise the dead from the grave. 

The Dealbhna 6 hard, meagre-faced, bony, 

Are a sharp-mouthed, grumbling people ; 

If I found the Dealbhna collected all together 

I would drive them with my hand into the Shannon, 

son of Conn, son of Calbhach), lost Offaly by his attainder in the 
reign of Philip and Mary ; but many of the family remained in the 
territory, andso late as 1626, Lysagh O'Conor, Esq., of this territory, 
was a gentleman of wealth and high rank, whose Will, which is a 
very curious document, is preserved in the Prerogative Court, 
Dublin. See ach, p. 127, note d . He was probably the 
son of the Calbhach here referred to. The last chief of this family 
was the late Maurice O'Conor of Mountpleasant, in the King's 
County, who became the heir of Lord Sunderlin, and whose sisters 
are still in the possession of Baronstown house, in the County of 

6 The Dealbhna, i.e., the Delvins. There were seven septs of this 
name seated in different parts of Ireland, but the sept here referred 
to, were the Dealbhna-Eathra, seated along the Shannon, in the pre- 
sent barony of Garrycastle, King's County. The Dealbhna are of the 
race of Dal g-Cais, and derived their patronymic from their ancestor 
Lughaidh Dealbh-aodh, the third son ofCas. See 0'Flaherty's 
Ogygia, part iii. c, 82. After the establishment of surnames, the 
Dealbhna-Eathra took the hereditary name of Mac Cochlain, now 
Coghlan. For some account of the last head of this family, see 
Brewer's Beauties of Ireland. Mr. John Coghlan, P. L. G., who 
lives near Castlebar in the County of Mayo, is the head of one of 
the most respectable branches of this family. His ancestor removed 
to the County of Mayo, with O'More, about 1740. 


'peAjiA Ce^ll A5 b6AT)ATt) \)ó]\ } 
)\ cúir- it)A|*lA A^up rt)jox)d]T • 
3t>&c ^e^^AÓ A5 pe^n^b CcaII, 
2in ceAlU/|b ^aca \)-&b&x)t). 

2t)uii)qn 5bí|^A||ib JA|nT)-c]lle, 
<t)neATi7 5^t> íocc, 5AT) rlnirjne ; 
CujbeAct<v ]ozn)^yi, 5AT) ítt?, 
T^nuibeACCA íocc<vin ]£njt>t) • • 

Cujt> UlUó. 

<t)o béAnf A]T)T) 't^At) bul b'& £015, 
^iAnu<vjÓ Ajn^jb^ t)o caIIoitj; 
5o &-c=j At) ^1|T5 e An í* Ai5 BbAt)bA ; 
C^inbe bo 9X)\)&c ^QfxxcgATÍ^TjA ! 

21 T) CCAC &jol<V T)AC frfol bAlt), 

'S At) ccac iotdcaiti, 5<vr) lorrrcAn ; 
BiT)-t)eAc}) t)A céib a b-cAub^v, 
<t)o fet)-ceACÍ) 2l)be5 ^bAC5Arr)r>A. 

Feara Ceall, i.e., the men of the Churches. These were the 
O'Molloj's of Kinel Fiachach, whose territory comprised the bar- 
onies of Fircall, Ballycown, and Ballyboy, in the King's County. 
They took their hereditary surname of O'Maoilmhuaidh, from 
Maolmhuaidh, chief of Feara-Ceall, who was slain by O'Carraidh 
in the year 1019. See Annals of Rilronan ; also Leabhar-na-g-Ceart 
p. 179. n. 

2 Flaving, ve&VV&S, whether this may mean scolding. Some have 
understood this totally different, as follows : — 

The Feara-Ceall chuming newmilk [nór .1. tj&r, i.e., newmilk,l 
It is a cause of scandal and disgrace, 
The Feara Ceall flay their cattle, 
On the banks of each river. 

Daniel Mollov, Esq., of Clonbela, near Birr,in theKing's County, is 
localhj believed, to be the head of this family. 

3 thefamilv of Granard, i.e., the Sheridans, who were Herenachs, 


The Feara-Ceall 1 celebrating customs ! 
It is a cause of scandal and disgrace ; 
The Feara-Ceall are usually flaying, 2 
On the banks of each river. 

The familj of Granard, 3 of the narrow church, 
A people without clemencv, without truth ; 
A thirstj tribe, without butter, 
Dregs of the bottom of hell ! 


I would rather than visit his house, 
To ask for silver, or cattle ; 
Travel to the sea along Banbha [Ireland], 
To give respite to Mac Mahon. 4 

The house of payment which paid not me, 
And the house that sustains without a burthen ; 
If any one choose to have luck, 
He wiil shun the old house of Mac Mahon. 

or hereditary wardens of the Church of Granard, in the County of 
Longford, and Coniharbas of St. Guasacht, who was bishop of the 
place in St. Patrick's time. His festival is celebrated on the twenty- 
fourth of January. 

4 Mac Mahon (SOac Wazs&ttwa), i.e., Mahon of Oirghialla or Oriel, 
which at this period comprised the entire of the County of Monaghan. 
Aenghus 0'Daly was not the only person employed to satirize this 
family in the reign of Elizabeth. Campion who wrote in 1567* 
says, thatMacMahon signifies the Bear's son; and Spenser who wrote 
in 1596, says, that the Mac Mahons of the north were descended 
from the Fitz-Ursulas or De-Veres, who fled from England during 
the Barons' wars against Richard ir. To which Sir Charles Coote 
adds, in his Statistical Account of the County of Monaghan, that their 
ancestor had murdered St. Thomas A Becket ! For their true descent, 
viz. from Mathghamhain, Lord of Farney, who was slain at Clones, 
A.D. 1022, see Shirley's Account of the Dominion of Farneij, p. 140. 


SftA]b£05 CIuatia cfoninA qobjtAjb, 
^D'aot) tjcac 't)a conp beA^ a bjrjg ; 
BeA^ a b-]OT)Ab A]t cúl lejce, 
'S bo béA]tA8 cu]l 'r)A V)-e]ce ]. 

<t)nu|Tt) fwe&czA at) bA]le bo^, 
'S&V A]nó]T)T)e<vc, — ^at) eAfbo^, — 
Ij&r) acc bA cA]]tT)eAÓ 'r*^t> 5 _ C]U, 
2l]t f |tA]b ]TT)leACA]r), íflU. 

<Do flu]5£eA8 at> cu]l b'Aoo-^nejTT) ua]td, 

5^1) AT)-f0CA]]t, 5AT) AT)buA]T), ■ 

SneADAT) A*]" ]TT) A]t A TT)U]T), 

21 5-C]ll U] 4)I)UT)A|T) <£)OTÍ)T)U]5. 

Cu5A]b ! Cu5A]b ! bjol tja cnuA]5e ! 

í)éAT)A]6 AT) UA]]t-r*] fé]l T)A TT)A]tb j 

O'FAgAllA]^ at) r-eAT)ó]n t-uA]8ce, 
'S a cIat)T) 8eAnójl, bnú]8ce, bAlb. 

S]ol SAn)]tA6A]T) T)A TT)-buA]lceAÓ beA5, 
9Vf ]Ab u]le Art beA^ÁT) b]8 ; 
^DneATT) le'n b]T)T) ceol t>a cu]le ! 
SeATT)A]t a rt)-beol 5AÓ bu]T)e 8]ob. 

1 Cluain Tiobraid, i.e., the lawn or meadow of the spring; now 
Clontobred or Clontibret, in the barony of Cremorne, and County of 
Monaghan. This was one ofthe Herenach churches of Mac Mahon's 
Country. The patron Saint of the Church was Cruimhthear Ar, 
whose festival was kept on the thirteenth of June. 

2 Behind aflag (atv cúl leice). It was customary with the peasantry 
to use a flag-stone for a griddle, which they fixed behind the fire to 
bake their cake-bread upon. To this custom Aenghus here alludes. 

3 Druim Sneachta, i.e., the ridge or long hill of the snow, now 
Drumsneaght or Drumsnat, in the same County. This was one of 
the poorest Churches of Mac Mahon's Country. Every rich Church 
had an Archinneach. The patron of the Church was.the celebrated 
St. Molua, whose festival is celebrated on the fourth of August. 
The MS. called Cinn Droma Sneachta (the Book of Drumsnat), 
quoted by Reating and some older Irish writers, is supposed to have 
belonged to this Church. 

4 O'Dunan's Church of Donagh. O'Dunan was Herenach of the 
Church of Donagh in the barony of Truogh, County of Monaghan. 
It is in the territory of the Mac Kennas, who were Urries to the Mac 
Mahons. St. Patrick is the patron. See Annals ofthe Four Masters, 
Ed. J. O'D., A. D. 1507. 

3 0'Reilly. He was Edmond 0'Reilly of Kilnacrott, who died at 
a very advanced age in the year 1601. See Annalsofthe Four 


The cake of dry Cluain-tiobraid, 1 

In any one ; s body is of little strengtli ; 

Small is its place behind a flag, 2 

And a fly would carry it under its wing. 

Druim-Sneachta, 3 the soft town, 
Without a herenach, — without a bishop, — 
Having but two priests in the church, 
On a broad, low, street. 

A fly would swallow in one morsel, 
Without diniculty, — without trouble, — 
The thin cake with its butter on its back, 
Which I got at O'Dunan's Church of Donagh. 4 

Here comes ! Here comes ! Miser^'s personification ! 
Celebrate now the festival of the dead ! 
0'Keilly/ the decrepid senior, 
And his puny, stunted, stammering sons ! 

The race of Samhradhan 6 of small Boolies 7 [dairies], 
And they all with little food ; 
A horde to whom the music of the fly is sweet ; 
A shamrock 8 is in the mouth of every one of them. 

Masters, Ed. J. O'D., A.D. 1583, p. 1806, note ° ; and A, D. 1601, 

Myles John O'Reillv, Esq., of the Heath House, Queen's Countv, 
is now the representative of this old Edmond, and one would think 
that it was of him our author was here speaMng, ^eati £o-cai?a fio c|\é|5 
a \rxy\oyi.* Another descendant from him, by the father's and mother's 
side, is Myles William 0'Reilly of Knock Abbey, County of Louth, 
who also inherits his meagreness and smallness of stature, as does 
another hard-featured specimen of his race, Dowell OReilly, Esq., 
Attorney-General in Jamaica. Of his race also is Count Ó'Rtíilly 
of the Island of Cuba, and John Temple Reilly, son of the late 
collector of the port of Galway, who was the head of the 0'Reillys 
of Scarva, in the County of Down. 

6 The race of Samhradhan, i.e., the Meg-Samhradhain or Ma- 
gaurans of the territory of Teallach-Eathach, now Tullyhaw, in the 
County of Cavan. Before 1585, this territory paid tribute to Sir 
John 0'Reilly ? but, at a more remote period, Magauran had been 
tributary to 0'Kourke, and was considered as belonging to West 
Breifne and the province of Connacht. 

7 Boolies. See Spenser's View of the State of Ireland, Dublin 
Edition, p. 82. 

8 A Shamroch. See the quotation from Campion infra, p. 52. 

* " A beautiful Bust of Myles O' Reilly by Kirk, raiher hard, but not so 
hard altogether as Myles hiniself L" Thc Comet. 


I^Aob ó iu&]6 bo Loc S)le&r)x), 
B]'b ^At) AO]t)-5Jte]Tt) 'y&v c-]*Arb]tA]ó j 
Le ceAÓc bA]t)t)e t)a t)-5ADA]t, 
<Do 5t)fb ^05 A] 1 aji feArr)]tA]b. 

Caoc AT) fTjgeAt) — caoc At) rbACAi]?, 

CAOC At) C-ACA]]t CAOC At) ít)AC j 

CAOC At) CApAll b]Of £A*t) C-f]tACAfrií 

Btioc Ari 5^ribe a'i* A]t ^lA^e, 
2lp A]t rbé]b a'Y ^T 1 rbío-rbA]]*e ; 
5Vfort)AC A|t géfrie a Óa fúl — 
S]ot)t>^c A|i b]té]t>e At> BAjtút) ! 

Poca beA5 a t>-5A]t bV 5lú]t)j 
2t)]At) bo rb]At)^]b At) BbA]tú]t) ; 
< Dó]]tr-e bút)CA A]t beA^&r) b]ó, 
21 r)-A15&1i) Cú]]tce At) CbluA]t)]r). 

























2t)A]t leAt)A]b fjol MeAriit)A]t)t), 
'Crte rbA]]tb-l]t)t) lo]t5 t)^ Iaca]T) ; 

LeAt)A]b 2t)Át)A]5 At) C-A]tÁt), 

T]te poll-&AllÁ]t) rxx f]t<vc]t<vc. 

1 Zo Me north of Loch Sileann, 'i.e., of Loch Sheelan, a spacious lake 
on the borders of the Counties of Meath, Longford, and Cavan. The 
people here referred to are the Mac Tighearnains, now Mac Kernans 
or Rernans, of the territory of Teallach Dunchadha, now.Tullvhunco 
in the County of Cavan. Before 1585, this barony also paid tribute 
to Sir John O'Reillv, but at an earlier period it had belonged to 
0'Rourke, and was considered a part of Connacht. 

2 Dej redution on shamrochs. Campion who wrote in 1567» 
says of the meere Irish : " Shamrotes [i.e., shamroges], Water- 
cresses, Rootes, and other hearbes they feed upon : Oatemale and 
Butter they cramme together. They Drinke Whey, Milke and Beefe 
broth, Flesh they devour without bread ; corne such as they have 
they keepe for their horses. In haste and hunger they squese out 
the blood of raw flesh and aske no more dressing thereto, the rest 
boyleth in their stomackes with Aquavitse which they swill in after 
such a surfeite, by quarts and pottles. Their kyne thev let blood 
which growne to a jelly they bake and overspread with Butter, and 
so eate it in lumpes." HistoHe of Ireland, Dub. Ed. p. 25. 

3 The Burun, i.e., Conor Maguire of Enniskillen, who was called 


To the north side of Loch Sileann, 1 
They are without any bit [of food] in summer ; 
But when the milk of the goats comes on, 
They commit a depredation on shamrocks. 2 

Blind is the daughter — bhnd the mother, 
Blind the father — blind the son ; 
Blind the horse which is under the straddle, 
Half-blind the hound — blind the cat. 

A badger in roughness and in greyness, 
An ape in size aiid ugliness; 
A lobster for the sharpness of both his eyes, 
A fox for his stench is the Baron ! 3 

To have a small pot near his knee, 

Is one of the habits of the Baron ; 

The doors are closed on little food, 

In the depths of the Court of Cluainin. 4 

























As the Nemon-seed 5 is pursued, 
By the ducks through the stagnant pool, 
So the Managhs 6 pursue the bread, 
Through the pin-hole of the straddle. 

2I)A5 Ujóitt 3aUí>a, i.e., the "English Maguire," and also " theBaroiV 
by the Irish, before he had actuaily received this title from the state. 

4 Cluainin. i.e., a small lawn, holm or meadow. This was the 
name of a strong stone house belonging to the " English Maguire" 
(Conor, son of Conor, son of Conor Mor, son of Thomas Oge), 
and situated near Lisnaskea in Fermanagh. 

5 The Nemon-seed, i.e., duck-meat, which grows on the surface 
of stagnant waters without a root. This quatrain has its words too 
much transposed. It could be arranged thus : — 

SOA-p. leAUAib cné 5AC TTiA|nb-liíiíi, 

Ha Iacattj An lo|t5 fjl NeAriiriAiTjTi '•> 

\e&x)xp 2í)at)ai5 fliocc An*v|Ti, 

tné poll CAnfiAcAin tio &AllA]ri. 

As through every stagnant pool 

Theducks pursue the duck-meat, 

So the Fermanagh men follow the track of bread, 

Through the hole of an auger or gimlet. 

6 Managhs, i.e., the inhabitants of Fermanagh, who were all 
tributary to Maguire. 


<t)o]ue Bftof5A]8 r)&]t beAi)i)ii]5 £ Df a I 
t^n jo|tc<v ]t]Arb att 50U 'f A t> 5-C|U; 
S]tA]beo5 catxv mA]t l<v]nn é]f5, 
'S roA]t 115 lo]r> A]t rrjé]]* bo gejbjnn. 

í)& i)-AO]tA]t)r) CIaitt) <£)&Ia]5, 
M]0]t 6]oi) bAit) f]ol feAT)-2ib<<V]rn; 
Cl*vnn <t)&lA]5 b^v 6]on b<vrr), 
^5 u f rl ^ feAT)-2iÓA]rn b'AO]t<v8. 

T>uy& bo curt óf a 5-qonn, 
M] be]rn A]t ^e<vuA]b 6]]t]onr) ; 
<t)u><vl tt)] or)-cf uoca bo cu]aII 50 rnuju, 
21 fcuA]5 f ]r)r) Locb<v peAbA]l. 

<£)ob' olc rno curtAf f Vn MoóIa]^, 

5o c]5 U] í)boc<v]tcA]5 tta b-Mr e 5 

* * * * * * 

21 b-fu<v]tAf bo bruvc&r) ]nt)te. 

1 Derrybrush. (tioitie-brioH)^.) This is the present name of a 
celebrated Church near Ennislullen in the County of Fermanagh, of 
which the family of MacGrillachoisgle (now Cosgrove), were Heren- 
achs or hereditary wardens. See Annals ofthe Four Masters, under, 
the name of Aireach Brosga, at the years 1384, 1482, 1484, 1487? 
1506, and 1514. In the Annals of Ulster, which were compiled in 
Fermanagh, it is called by both names, from which it might be in- 
ferred that the words Doire and Aireach, are synonymous, meaning 
roboretum, a place of oaks. 

2 Clann Dalaigh. i.e., the race of Dalach son of Muircheartach. 
This was the tribe-name of the O'Donnells of Tirconnell, at this 
time the most powerful family in Ireland. The Dalach from whom 
they derived their tribe-name was chief of Tirconnell, and was slain 
in the year 868. The Dalach from whom the 0'Dalys (the poets) 
descend, was of Corca Adhaimh or Race of Adam, in Westmeath, 
and descended from Maine the brother of Conall Gulban, ancestor 
of the O'Donnells. See the Introduction. The poet may have in- 
tended an equivocation here ; for his own family, the poetical 
0'Dalys, were the Corca or Síol Adhaimh, i.e., Race of Adam ! 

3 Small streams, i.e., as small streams flow into the sea, so small 
chieftains flock to thy standard and acknowledge thy superioritv. 

4 Hero ofLoch Feabhail, i.e., of Lough Foyle near Derry. This 
hero was the celebrated Hugh Roe or Red Hugh O'Donnell, who 
was treacherously taken prisoner by the Lord Deputy Perrot, in 
the year 1587, when he was in the sixteenth year of his age. He 
escaped from the Castle of Dublin in 1590, and was re-taken the 
same year and confmed in Dublin Castle again, whence he escaped 
a second time in 1592, in which year he was inaugurated O'Donnell. 
He fled to Spain after the defeat at Rinsale in 1602, and died the 
same year. '<He was a lion in strength, a C*esar in command." 
See his character blazoned in the Annaís ofthe Four Masters, A. D. 
1602, p. 2297. 

At Doire-Brosgaidh,, 1 which God has not blessed 
Starvation is ever hatching in the Church; 
A thin cake like the íins of a fishj 
And like the egg of a blackbird I got on a dish, 

Should I satirize the Clann Dalaigh, 2 
The race of Adam would not be a shelter to me ; 
The Clann Dalaigh would be a shelter to me, 
Were I to satirize the race of old Adam. 

To place you over their heads, 
Is no disgrace to the men of Eirin; 
Small streams 3 naturally ílow to the sea, 
O fair hero of Loch Eeabhail/ 

Sad was my visit at Christmas, 

To the house of 0'Dogherty 5 of the Island ; 

Was the porridge I got there. 

The race of this Hugh are extinct, if he left any. The Count 
DeLucena of Spain, late Captain General of Cuba, Count O'Donnell 
of Austria, and Manus O'Donnell of Castlebar, Esq., descend from 
Con Oge, the brother of Niall Garbh O'Donnell, Baron of Liíford. 

5 0'Dogherty of the Island, i.e., 0'Dogherty of the island of Inch 
in the barony of Inishowen, County of Donegal. This was either 
Sir John 0'Dogherty (son of John, son of Feilim), chief of Inis- 
howen, or his son, Sir Cahir, who was knighted by Lord Mountjoy 
for his bravery in fighting against the Earl of Tyrone and his 
followers ; but who rebelled himself in 1608, after the flight of the 
Earls, and lost his life in a hopeless struggle. Aenghus was afraid 
of the Clann Dalaigh, but not, it appears, of the Idndred race of the 
Clann Fiamain or 0'Doghertys. 

The Island here referred to, is Inch, in Lough Swilly, on which 
0'Dogherty had a strong Castle. The cause of Sir Cahir Ó'Dogherty's 
rebellion is thus briefly explained by Sir Henry Docwra, in his Narra- 
tion of Services, published by the Celtic Society, in their Miscellany : — 

f< Presentlie after him (Roory O'Donnell) came O'Doghertie alsoe 
with a lettre from my Lord [Mountjoy] to mee, to pray me to de- 
liver him the possession of the Ile of Inch againe ! which hee him- 
selfe had past away before, first by lease for xxi. yeares, and after- 
wardes in fee simple for ever, both under the greate seale ! ! I 
tould him this warrant was too weak to doe what it imported, and 

shewed him reasons for it Hereuppon hee tooke it more to 

hearte, sent agents to deale for him in England, they prevavled not 
till my Lord was deade, and then with impatience led away with 
lewd councell besides, and conceiving himselfe to be wronged in 
many other thinges, hee was first brooke out into open Rebellion ; 
but that fell out a good while after," pp. 278, 279. 


21 t)-AOjlAÓ Vf\ bO]l]3 ÓAtt), 

O 8ujt?e l]<vc 50 leAT>AO ; 
Cacívt)A]5 rjA 5-cé]rr)eAT)T) Ia^, 
S5tiac^t;a|3 C]]teAT)T) Aon^Ab. 

N| b-fiiAn bo locc au OineAcc-2l]br)e, 
2lcc 3At> aot) neAc At)r> bo n^AnpAbAO]]* \ 
W\ n<\CA]b co]óce 5AT) CAob co^a, 
3o CAob né]ó ^a no^A a n]] 4 ! ! 

2lnÁT) CAT)A AT) ^l)]]*]]!^, 

)r ír^ 1 ^ 'r ir *yfa*$n\ 

Í)A TT)-bA ]0T)A1)1) curt)A óójb, 

<t)An T)-bÓ|C bA C]Ul]TT)e At) AblA1)1). 

1 The Cahans, i.o., the Ó'Kanes of Oireacht-Ui-Chathain, situate 
between the Poyle and the Bann in the Countv of Londonderry. 
£»5itACAi)A]5 GineAn, is here a great calumny: and the next qua- 
train waá evidently interpolated by Aenghua himself, or some other 
bard, to take the sting out of it. The O'Ranes were called Oireacht- 
Aibhne, rrom Aibhne (son of Diarmaid, Bon of Cumhaighe na- 
Coille), who flourished A.D. 1432, and vraa the progenitor ofnearly 
all the suhsequent chiefs óf this family. The chief at this period 
v..i- Donnell Ballagh, son of Etory, Bon of Manus, son of Donough 
the Hospitable, bod of John, aon of Aibhne or Evenue, a <|uo Oire- 
acht-Aibhne, a tribe-name by whioh the chief families of the 0'Kanes 
were at thia period designated. He was inaugurated in the year 
1598. Fvnes MorvBon teHi a itory of the ohiefof thi^ family, 
rromwhich it is clear, that the Bard Ruadfa waa not the only Batírist 
who liim. A Bohemian Baron oalled at the oourt at 

Dublin Castle, and Baid, amongother things, that he had viaited the 
Ca8tle of O'Oane, ia the North of [reland, where he was admit- 
ted to Bee thal chieftain'e danghters, two ofwhom weíe ?ery nympha 
in beauty, and who were BÍtting round a lire ttarh naked. They bid 
liini sit down on the ground and form one of the company, which he 
refused to do. Soon after, O'Cane their father, returned frora 
hunting, and addressins the Btranger in the Latin Language, desired 
liim to take offhia elothea and rest. The only covering the ohief 
had on wai 1 targe cloak, which he took offon enterins, the oastle, 
and then he too being rtarh nahed, Bat down at the fire along with 
hia daughtera. It ia curioua to remark with whal intense determi- 
nation the BngHsfa Governmenl at thia perlbd turned all their \'<>\-ri- 
of cannon, muslceta, treacher] and satire, to overthrow "thewilde 
Iriahrie" and" t<> extirpe the < i « • i~; » 1 * 1 í 1 > 

Sir Richard Keane of < lappoquin ra the ( lountj of Waterford, ii o# 
thia Northern race i hiagrandfather who wa 1 erman, waian 

Attorney in Waterford. Sir Roberl ELane of Dublin, the celebrated 
chemiat, ii also of thia race. Híbi idfatherwho waa ;i native 

of the V.iir i,f the Etoe, removea thenoe to Meath, andhiifamirv 
ultimaterv became ohemiats, and manufactureri of SodaandOil <»i 
Vitriol, in the Gitj of Dublin. There are rarioui familiea of the 
name in the original territory, bnt none higher than the rank of 


To satirize them is not difficult for me, 
From the hoary-headed man to the child, 
The O'Cahans * of the ignoble deeds, — 
Eiriu's idlers — I will satirize. 

I found no fault with Oireacht-Aibhne, 

But that they had none to entertain ; 

They will ncver movc without chosing thcir side, 

And tlie easy side will be their choice again.' 2 

The thin brcad of Disert, 3 

Is slim indced and paltrv; 

Were it and the wafer of the same shape, 

Indccd thc wafcr 4 would be heavícr ! 

farmers, except thosc in holy orders. The Rev. Manus, or Manas- 
ses O'Rane, P.P. of Oinagh, wfafl Ls a native of Oireacht-Ui-Chath- 
ain, is the finest speeimen ofthe raee livin^r, oxeept Dr. Cane of 
Kilkenny ; and "Williain KaiU', wh» luaded the Irisli at thc hattle of 
Carrickshock, slaughtered the police, and fled to America. 

2 Tfieir choice aguin, i.e., thev never joln anv partv nntil they see 
which is likely to be the victors, and whenever they happen to be 
mistaken, thev hesitate not to return to the easy and successful 
side ! ! Lord Mountjov, in replv to Sir Henry Docwra, who plead- 
ed in favour of 0', in 1602, ohservedof the latter (Miscellamj of 
the Celtic Socictij, p. 277) : " Hee is but a drunhen ftellowe, saith hee, 
and soe hase, that I doe not thinke bnt in íhe seereete of his heart, 
it will hetter content him to be so than otherwise ; besides hee is 
able neithcr to doe good or hurte &c., &c, But, howsoever, By God, 
sayeth hee, O'Cane must and shall be under my Lord Tyrone. 

" In the meane time, my Lord Hugh (the Earle of Tyrone's eldest 
sonne) and I went home together, and when wee came to the Derrey 
I sent for O'Cane, and tould him what my Lord's [Mountjoy's] plea- 
sure was touching him : Hee beganne presentlie to bee moved, and 
both hy speach and gesture, declared a-s earnestlie as possible to be 
highlie offendcd at it, argued the matter with mee upon many pointes, 

protested his fidelitie that he was now undone shewed many 

reasons for it, and asked if ice ivould claim him hereafter, if hee fol- 
lowed my Lord of Tyrone's Councell though it were against the 
kinge, seeing he was in this manner forced to be under him. In 
the end seeing no remedie, he shaked handes with my Lord Hugh ; 
bad the devill take all Englishmen, and as many as put their trust 
in them, and soe in the shewe of a good reconciled friendship they 
went away together." 

3 Disert. There are many Churches of this name in Ireland ; but 
the one here referred to is unquestionably t)|feAttc Uí Cuac^aiI, i.e. 
O'Tuohill's Desert, now Deseri-toghill, in Oireacht-Ui-Chathain, in 
the barony of Coleraine, and County of Londonderry. The last 
Herenach of this Church was Rory Mor O'Tuohill. 

4 Waf r. The word AbU\i)i) in the text denotes the wafer after 



2t)o A0|6eAcc a 5-C1II Fjaj^ 
Qe&nc&iv bot)A b]to]c-bliA8r)A ; 

2t)ATl ÓUjlleAOAJt &]t0151T)T) ATl l&Tl, 

BAHtgeAT) ciitirt) Uí ^bbloro^lt). 

O'CTtóilije be^5 y& 5-qAb 5-CAf, 
T^CATl T)AC be&ttt)A TllATb a le^T ; 
SljAló at) buit)e A|t a brUvTjA-ib, 

215 CATITIA1T)5 A CATfte ATl ^15]T> Af. 

Boic 20eióbe ! Bo^c 2t)éi6be ! 
Bo^c beA^ c& a T)Aice at) c-i*léibe ; 
Bo^c a b-córbAifceATt at) c^c coiftce, 
Boic t)A 50TICA, Bo^c °Jt)éi6be ! 

21 cuil be^5 úb ati but) v& Sxvfble, 
«D'a rrj-b'eol bu^c béArjATt) TiUAbAc; 
BbéAfiT& rrjo cu^b ATi&it) a't irrje, 
Coif t)^- }~1t)t)e le^c 50 tuatiac. 

2t)uit)cnt €>A5ri<V/ — bu^lce beA^A, 
'pltwe lAb t)ATt cofAit) cliu; 
)t e 1T ce0 ^ b0 1° ce °l t>A cuile, 
?Jlrr)pAU a rrj-beol 5AÓ bu]t)e 6ju. 

consecration as used by the priest at mass. It is thus defined by 
Dr. O'Brien, in his Irish Dictionary, " Abhlann, a wafer; ábhlann 
choisreicthe, the [consecrated] Host, or Eucharist." However, we are 
not to infer that the poet speaks of it here irreverentlv, or after its 
consecration, but before it, when it is no more than any other bread ; 
and he could not perhaps introduce a more fitting comparison with 
the thin cake of Disert, 

1 Kilrea, C]U Rjatja, an ancient Church near the little town to 
which it gave name, in the north of the barony of Loughinsholin, 
County of Londonderry. The family of O'Diomain, now Diamond, 
who were hereditary Herenachs of this Church, are still very nume- 
rous in this neighbourhood. 

2 Acorns " t>eAttcA]i) .1. &atí-ci)U .1. ciju t)A &atiac [the nuts of the oak]." 
Cormac's Glossary. 

3 0'Crilly. He was Herenach of the Church of Tamhlacht-TJi- 
Chroiligh, now Tamlaghtocrillv, situated a short distance to the 
south of Kilrea in the same barony. This family is also very 
numerous in this neighbourhood. They think that O'CtiuaóIaoíc, 
O'Crowlev, is the true form of the name, and that 0'Crilly is a 
corruption ; but if this be true, the name was corrupted at an 
early period, as it is found written o'Crteillis in old Irish MSS. 


My fare at ICilrea 1 

Was the wretched acoms 2 of a bad year ; 

Like the leaves of the blackthorn on the ground, 

Is the dry-cake of O'Diomain. 

The little O'CrnV of the cnrly locks, 
Is a wight who never acted to have good luck; 
The face of this fellow is on his neck, 
Carrving off his pot with difficulty. 

Bovevagh ! Bovevagh ! 4 
A little hut that is beside the mountain; 
A hut in which the oaten chaff is measured, 
Hut of hunger is the hut of Mevagh. 

little fly which yonder rest on the rafter's end, 
If you but knew how to make plunders ; 
You might bear off my supper of bread and butter, 
Along the Finn 5 with facility. 

The families of O'Hara, 6 of small Booleys, 

A tribe that never earned fame ; 

Their music is the humming of the fly, 

And the grumbling 7 of penury in each man's mouth. 

4 Boith Mheidhbhe, now Bovevagh, an old church near Dungiven, 
in the barony of Keenaght, and County of Londonderry. These 
lines are still repeated at this church, and remembered by the local 
shanachies as the composition of the Bard Ruadh from Munster. 
The name Boith Mheidhbhe, signifies Meave's, or Mabbina's hut, on 
which the Bard raises such playful rhymes. St. Aidan, the^ nephew 
of St. Patrick, was abbot of it. See Colgan's Trias Thaum., p. 495. 
The 0'Quiglys were the Herenachs of this Church. 

5 Along tíie Finn, i.e., His bread and butter at Bovevagh were so 
light that the fly might carry it off even to the river Finn, in Tir- 
connell, without being wearied of its burden. 

6 O'Hara. He was O'Hara of Crebilly, in Dal Riada, in the 
County of Antrim. This family is a branch of the O'Haras of 
Leyny, in the County of Sligo, and descends from Hugh, the bro- 
ther of Conor Gott O'Hara, Lord of Leyny, who died in the year 
1231. This branch removed to Dal Riada with the Red Earl of 
Ulster, who died in 1326. This family is now extinct in the male 

7 Grumbling. This music was not as sweet as even the humming 
of the beetle. " 1r reívnn rwi^e 't)A X>\xr) ]i)ix f u]óe 'tja ávir," and " rjA^ 
cusaió t5]A óú]T)t) ri^," were tne ^sual exclamations of this kind of 

'S 5AD f&ic reAi)5^it) at)T) bo tyAÓ; 


HAC^eATiDA cig CTiOTT)-fUi.ce ATl fl^Ab. 

ClT)el T^AjATtCAlg T)A JílTl, 

PuijeAll e^rSA^e a't- eiqs ; 


2lTtb UU6 5At)t), 30TICAC, 

T/JTl 3^VT) AOlbTjeAT 1 , 3ATj A||ÍTieAT)T) ; 
2t)AC AT) C-SAbA01fl3 M) CTlOCAlTie 3^1^ 

'peAtt CAfS^vfTtc b&/|TiT)eAc le rj*AiriciT)T). 

M^ T^AbA 30 b-CTl]AtUltt) CATt CTI&13, 
<t)o't) &1C 10Í)A D-fAgCATl tqOT); 

<£> , t*iof y& t)-ó3 T)Acb Tuv]be rti<ur), 
5at) b^A^Tie i)A Ttób Tqog. 

1 On a mountain, so as not to be so accessible to the Bards, 
Jesters, Minstrels, Carooghs, Geocaghs, and other Strollers, as it 
is now, beingbuilt on the side ofthe highway. 

2 Cinel Fhaghartaigh, i.e., Race of Faghartach. This was the 
tribe-name of the Mac Artans of the barony of Kinelarty, on the 
west side of Loch Cuan, in the County of Down. They derived their 
tribe-name from Faghartach, son of Mongan, son of Saran of the 
race of Rossa, king 'óf Ulster. From Artan the grandson of this 
Faghartach, they took their hereditary surname of Mac Artain, in 
the tenth century. See Leabhar-na-g-Ceart, p. 206, n. 

3 Ard Uladh, now the Ardes, two baronies in the east of the 
County of Down, and lying principally between Loch Cuan and the 
sea. This was the ancient country of Mac Gillamuire, now Gilmore ; 
but for some centuries previously to Aenghus's time it had belonged 
to the Savages, a familv of Anglo-Norman descent. Ware has the 
following strange passages about these two rival families in his An- 
nals of Ireland, at the years 1407, 1408. 

A. D. 1407, "A certain false fellow, an Irishman, named [Iíugh] 
Mac Adam Mac Gilmore, that had caused forty churches to be de- 
stroyed ; who was never baptized, and therefore was called Corbi, 
took Patrick Savage prisoner, and received for his ransom two 
thousand marks, and afterwards slew him together with his brother 

A. D. 1408, " This year Hugh Mac Gilmore was slain at Car- 
rickfergus, within the church of the Fryars minors, which church 
he had before destroyed, and broke down the Glass windows, to have 


A long wide house on the middle of the highwav, 
And not enough for a pismire there of food ; 
Heart-ache to the hungrv kerne, 
That did not build a crib-house of rods on a mountain. 

The Cinel-Fhaghartaigh 2 are the men ! 
Eemnants of curses and lies, 
Large, soft, dastardlv men, 
Blind, crooked, shin-burnt, 

Ard-Uladh 3 destitute, starving, 
A'district without delighf. — without mass, — 
Where the son of Savage, the English hangman/ 
Slaughters barnacles with a mallet ! 

It will not be long ere I cross the strand, 
To the place where wine is got ; 
To visit the vouths who never were, 
Without a desire to watch the king's roads. 5 

the iron bars, through which his Enemies, the Savages, entred upon 

4 The Eiiglish hangman. This was intended to have its eífect 
among people of Milesian Irish feeling. Cox, in his address to the 
reader, after remarking that the old lrish wished to murder all the 
Anglo-Irish, writes : — " However, the secret of this design was not 
divulged, until O'Neale, in his Triumphs to Munster blab'd it out ; 
for being told that Barrett of Castlemore, though an Englishman, 
was a good Catholic, and had been there four hundred years, he re- 
plied that he * hated the Clown aá if he had come but yesterday.' Since 
that we have many more instances ofit; and that this antipathy, 
has extended itself even to English cattle and improvements. It 
was another O'Neale who said, it did not become him to writhe his 
mouth to chatter English ; and that executed a solder because hehad 
English bislcet in his pocket." 

5 The hing's high road s i. e., to rob the passengers if they were 
gentlemen or merchants. These were evidently the Magemiises of 
Dundrum, in the County of Down. Dundrum was famous for 
wine. Iiere Shane O'Neale had at one time two hundred tun of 
wine in his cellar, '^whereof and of usquebaugh he would drink to that 
excess that to cool himself he would be put into a pit, and the earth 
cast round him to his chin, and so he remained, as it were, buried 
alive till his body was in better temper." It would be very difficult 
to get Aenghus 0'Daly to satirize such conduct as this, which to 
him would seem all right. 


O'b-^Mu^t) a b-qi; Ai) 2t}ulU]5, 
B'olc a cuIa^c au a be|é At)t> ; 
CeAcnArb fp^beó^e A^e au ce]ir|ó, 
21'f p|n OjnceAn u|le b'A cne^ rrj ! 

BeA^At) b^nrje a ri)6nt)At) roAOiÓceAC, 
BeA^At) blAcAige a 5-cuAÓAi) cato ; 
BeA^ívT) An*vjt> le coif bAllA, 

21^ T)eAb A5 A1) bubATJ-AllA^Ó At)t). 
2t)AC CAT)T)A AT) Í>UT)A]T) bO^T)T)^ 

Na fArbAjl bu^rje le <t)orbt>All; 
2lr) c-AbAll 'f a blAc b'A bn^c, 
'S xy\ cu]nt*eAC cac b'A ct)UAj*Ac. 

Be^n tt)o beAT)t)Acc caji Batjiia, 

2t)AU a b-f ujl 2t)Ac Catjtia, ceAt)t) t)a 5-clf An ; 

ÍJeACAin 6ú]T)t)e 5AI) a f aouaó, 

"peAu t)An bAonAÓ norbApt) niArb. 

1 O'Hanlon. O'b-^l^luA]^. He was chief of the eastern portion of 
Oirghialla, calledCrioch-na-n-Airthear,i.e., regio Orientalium, a,na,me 
which is still retained in the baronies of Orior, in the east of the 
County of Armagh. O'Hanlon was hereditary royal standard-bearer 
of Ireland, to north of the Boyne, an office claimed by and ceded to the 
late Col. O'Hanlon, when king George the Fourth visited Ireland, 
in 1821. The head of this family in our author's time was Sir Eochy 
O'Hanlon of Tandragee, who, though knighted, was considered so 
Irish, that the poet Spenser, inspeaíing of some great houses ofthe 
English in Ireland, who had so degenerated from their ancient digni- 
ties, íf and are now growne as Irish, as O-hanlon's breech [coú) 5AeóUc 
le zów XX) 21t)Iuaiij], as the proverb there is." View of the State of Ire- 
land, DublinEdition, p. 110. And in the reign of James 11., the family 
was headed by Brian O'Hanlon, traditionally called " the Colonel," 
who was the son of Glaisne, son of Patrick Bane, son of Edmond 
Laidir, son of Eochy, who was attainted by Act of Parliament as " Og- 
hie Oge O'Hanlon, Esquire, eldest son of Sir Oghie O'Hanlon, knight, 
late of Tonregye, in the County of Armagh." There are many re- 
spectable gentlemen of the name still in Ireland, but their pedigrees 
have not been traced. 

2 Mullagh, i. e. the summit or hill-top. This was the name of 
O'Hanlon's house at Mullagh, near Forkhill, in the County of 
Armagh. He had another house at Mullaghglass, in the parish of 
Killevy, in the same barony. 

O'Hanlon 1 at the house of Mullagh, 2 
Whose suit of clothes was wretched when there, 
Had a quarter of a red-breast on a fire, 
And the men of Orior 3 all to devour it ! 

A little milk in a leaky noggin, 

A little buttermilk in a crooked cup ;— 

A little bread close to the wall, 

And the spider having his nest therein. 

Mac Cann 4 of the dun mansion ! 5 
Compare no one to Donnell ; 
The apple tree 6 and its blossom betray him; 7 
And all are not tired of his accumulation. 

Bear my blessing across the Bann, 8 
Where dwells Mac Cann, head of the hosts, 
It is hard for us not to free him, 
A man who was never condemned before us. 

3 Men of Orior, i. e., the inhabitants of Crioch-na-n-Airther, re- 
gionis Orientalium, or the baronies of Orior, in the east of the County 
of Armagh. 

4 Mac Cann, 9X)&c Catjija, a family of the race of Rochadh, son of 
Colla Da Chrioch, chief of Clann-Breasail (Clanbrazil), which is 
shown on an old map of Ulster of the same age with this poem, as 
on the south side of Lough Neagh, where the upper Bann enters 
that lake. It was coextensive with the baronv of Oneilland-East. 
The late Major Mac Cann of the Countv of Louth, was the head 
of this family. There are various wealthy and highly respectable 
gentlemen of the name in various parts of Leinster and Ulster, 
but their pedigrees have not been preserved. 

5 Dun mansion, fcutjAi? tJu^r)^, Mac Cann's residence was situated 
close to Lough Neagh, in the barony of Oneilland-East, on the 
east side of the upper Bann, where that river enters the Lough. 

6 Theapple tree, atj Áb&ll, fem., signifies the apple tree, ax) c-AbAll, 
masc., the apple or fruit of the apple tree. 

7 Betray him, i.e., the want of fertility in the apple tree in his 
territory shows that he is not worthy of being a chieftain. See Bat- 
tle ofMagh Bath, pp. 100, 101. 

8 The Bann, Donnell Mac Cann, chief of his sept in our author's 
time, lived on the east side of the upper Bann, near where that river 
enters Lough Neagh. This quatrain is not satirical, and was evi- 
dently interpolated to take the sting out of the preceding quatrain. 


CU)t> t)4. WUWAV) t>0'f) %ÍOty. 

5o cttjoc Hó^ceAc T)A ]tob t)-5l<vt>, 
K&]t)15 irjé (n)ó|be At) rrjeATtbAl) ; 
Jf -pe^Ttjibe vo'e t)AÓ t>-]c]Tr; ^rp ; 
<Da t>-]orA]r;T> é t>] b-fA5A]t)i). 

<t)ut) BaO] T)A feAt)-f ]OX) fCATtb, 

2t)oU]b Att?AbA]t> 6]TteAt)t>; 

'NA't) <t)ut> Bao] ]*]r), bo béATi ^eAll, 

3u]t céAb AO]br;e ]]qteAt)T> ! 

'Cti] 1)-A8bA]]t "pA'ft feACAjt) ttjé, 
<Dúca]6 BeAfjcrtA]8e a'? BeA]tA ; 
C]tó]t)-rir]U bo^A 5^t) blA]% 

Cu]b]teAt)t) ]?A&A A^UT* AT^lA]]*. 
BlAÓTDAtJT) f UA]tA]» T1)A]t beACA, 

21 2t)u]*5]tA]óe Tt)6]n 2t)b]C <t)]ATtTr)AbA ; 
3u]t f e]]t5 tdo cl] bo't) catic 
5o TtoccA]t) 50 B^]le At> CoU]5. 

1 Roché's Country, a beautiful territory in the north of the County 
of Cork, now coniprised in the barony of Fermoy. Before the En- 
glish invasion this delightful district belonged to the O'Dugans, the 
descendants of the Druid Moghruith, but early in the thirteenth 
century they were dispossessed by the Roches and Condons. See 
0'Flaherty's Ogygia, part 111., c. 69. 

2 Dun Baoi, now Dunboy in Bantry. This was a place of great 
strength at the period to which this poem refers, and the principal 
stronghold of O'Sullivan Beare ; but there is no vestige of it re- 
maining at the present day. Soon after it sustained a siege that made 
it ahell indeed! It was besieged and stormedby Sir George Carew, 
Lord President of Munster, with the most unrelenting perseverance, 
and defended by Richard Mageoghegan and the warders, consisting 
of one hundred and forty-three íighting men, with a stubborn bra- 
very scarcely paralleled in modern history. At length when the 
castle was nearly shattered to pieces, Mageoghegan, mortally 
wounded, retired into a vault, determined to blow up with powder 
what remained of the castle ; and when he perceived the besiegers 
entering the vault, íf he raised himself from the ground, snatching 
a lighted candle and staggering therewith to a barrel of powder 
(which for that purpose was unheaded) ofíering to cast it into the 
same, but Captain Power caught and held him in his arms until he 
was, by our men, instantly killed." See Pacata Iiibemia, book m. 
c. vi, vii. and vm. As the poetic mind is said to be prophetic, 
also, this siege may have been the hell fore-shadowed by the prophe- 
tic soul of Aenghus na-n-Aer ! ! The connection between poetry 



To Roche's couutrj 1 of the fine roads 
I came, (great for that was my mistake) ; 
It is well for me that I eat not butter, 
~Fot, if I did, I could not get it. 

Dun-Baoi 2 of the bitter old wines, 
"Which is praised by the fools of Eirin, 
Than that Dun-Baoi, I will lay a wager, 
That hell is a hundred-times more delightful ! 

Three reasons why I shunned 

The district of Bantry and Bearra, 3 

\They usé\ brown, soft, lumps, 4 without taste, 

Long division, 5 and milk-and-water. 

Elattery 6 I got for food, 
In great Musgraidhe 7 of Mac Diarmada ; 
So that my chest dried up from thirst 
Until I reached Baile-an-Cholaig. 8 

and prophecy has been proved to the satisfaction of all Mesmerists, 
in a book published at Leipsic, in 1835, by A. Steinbeck, entitled, 
" Evcry poet a prophet ; a treatise on the Essential connection be- 
tween the poetic spirit and the property of Magnetic lucid vision." 

3 Bantry and Bearra. These are two baronies forming the south- 
west portion of the County of Cork. They were at this time divided 
betweeu the celebrated Donnell O'Sullivan Beare, and his uncle, Sir 
Owen O'Sullivan. See the Miscellamj ofthe Celtic Society, p. 403. 

4 Brown soft lumps. Certainly not rotten lumpers, or potatoes of 
any kind, but lumps of brown bread, or dumplings. 

5 Long division, CujbtieAtw ^a&a, i.e., the quantity of foodbroughtto 
table was divided into small rations, there being too many persons 
to be served in proportion to the quantity of food to be distributed. 

6 Flattery, i.e., blarney, or bland talk. This is the earliest notice 
of the bU6ti)Ai)t), or blarney of Munster, we have yet read. 

7 Musgraidhe, now Muskerry, a barony in the County of Cork. 
The chief of this territory was sometimes called Mac Diarmada, as 
being descended from Diarmaid Mor Mac Carthy, surnamed, of Mus- 
kerry, who died in 1368. The chief of thefamily had his principal 
residence at Blarney near the City of Cork ; though the manor of 
Blarney is separated from the rest of Muskerry, it being surrounded 
by the barony of Barretts and the Liberties of Cork. 

8 Baile-an-cholaig, now Ballincollig, a castle built on a rock about 
four miles west from the City of Cork. It was at this period the 
residence of William Barrett, who submitted to Queen Elizabeth in 
the year 1600, having been concerned in Desmond's rebellion. 


21 t>-<Dui) tf jt-cirqiu CAjrtb ; 
'Wa fujbe 'p a rj-brtort) le cU6, 
3^t) b^AÓ, 5^t) bjg, 5at) le^bAÓ. 

CIatjt) ^lrblAo^b cofrbújl rte c&c, 

SATf)A]|il]5e y>\'&]y, fobArt t>ac fuAirtc ; 

2i t)-5leAT)r)CAib £haotc cobl<vib bo ±\)'&t, 
•* * ■* * ^- -3C- 

C&ifS 6atd a b-c^5 ^t)i c CíoT^rjcbAÓ, 
Fo b'é tdo cajia tdo crtior- rijort) f Alf5 ; 
Ba fArbAilc a 6AOi_T)e 'fA b-f éAfCA, 
2t)Art bA Sloirje at) CbéAfCA at) Cb&lf5 • 

Ceirtc U] CbAo^rb 6 Cbl&jtAc, 

2trt gAOjc trj b|or) at> brté]beAc ; 

3í& aca a ceArjr) 'tja crrjorjAc, 

H) 5<vt)T) rtrjolA at)T) 5<vc eAT)5 b'& é<vbAc? 

21 ft^beo^ be^5 úb Art at> 5-crtAOjb, 
BeA^Ar) b"|8 5^6 b'fOTjrjArjr) bu^c, 
<t)A Tt)-be]ceA o^jbce a b-cjg \X\ CbAO]rb, 
<£)o cujCfeAÓ bo cV\ Aft bo criuic ! 

1 Dun-tairbh, i.e., fort of the bull. This is the place now called 
Dromtarriff, in 0'Keeffe's countrv, in the barony of Duhallow. It 
was the chief seat of O'Reeífe, in the 17th century. See Smith's 
History of Cork, booki., c. i., note 23. 

2 Clann-Amhlaoibh, i.e., the Mac Auliffes of Aes Ealla, whose chief 
residence was Castle Mac Auliífe, near Newmarket, in the north-west 
of the barony of Duhallow, in the County of Cork. Mac Auliífe's 
country comprised all the wild, mountainous, and heathy district 
lying between Newmarket, and the boundary of the Counties of 
Limerick and Kerry, where the rivers Feale and Blackwater have 
their sources, The last chief of this family is traditionally remem- 
bered as a poetical prophet. He foretold the granting of Emanci- 
pation to the Irish Catholics, andthe awful decrease of their number 
by famine soon after ; and also the extinction of his own descendants. 
The head of this family who had been born to a handsome estate 
was weigh-master in the market-house at Kenmare in 1840. 

3 Mac Donough. This was the name of one of the powerful 
chieftains of the Mac Carthy family who was seated at Kanturk, in 
the barony Duhallow, of whkh barony he was chief lord. He was 
so wealthy and powerful in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, that he 
erected at Kanturkafortress so strong and extensive, thatthe Lords 
of the Council in England transmitted an order to Ireland to have 
the work stopped. See a description of this great fortress in Smith's 
History of Corh, book n., c. vi. There is a good view of it given in 
Mons. Laine's Pedigree ofthe Count Mac Carthy, p. 67. 


I kuow well how the men are 
At the truly dry [thirsty] Dun-tairbh, 1 
Sittiug with their backs to a ditch, 
Without food, without drink, without bed. 

The Clann-Amhlaoibh 2 are like all the rest, • 
Hoving curs of the unpleasant trot, 
In heathv glens thev ever sleep : 

At Easter I was in the house of Mac Donough, 3 
He was my friend my girdle he tightened ; 
His people and feast were such 
As if Easter were Good Eriday ! 

The frieze rag of O'Eeeffe of Clarach, 4 

Is no shelter against the wind ; 

Although his head is hoary, 

The lice 5 are numerous in every fold of his raiment. 

O little robin 6 yonder on the bush, 
Though little food would serve your turn, 
If you were for a night in ? Keeffe's house, r 
Your breast would fall to your back ! 

4 O'Reeffe of Clarach. He does not appear to be the chief of the 
O'Reeffes. Clarach, or Claragh (Beg and Mor), is the name of a 
townland near Millstreet in the parish of Drishane, and barony of Du- 
hallow. Ordnance map, sheets 38, 39. See Reliques of Irish Jacobite 
Poetry, p. 35 ; and Hardiman's Irish Minstrelsy, vol, n., pp. 140, 141. 

5 The lice. The English writers of this period make hard com- 
plaint of the lousiness of the Irish. Fynes Moryson says, that " you 
could not get a bed in any inn, even in the town of Cork, without 
being swarmed with lice." Spenser, in treating of the Irishmantle, 
speaks of the Irish women thus : — « And as for all other good wo- 
men which love to doe but little worke, how handsome it [the mantle] 
is to lye in and sleep, or to louse themselfes in the sunshine, they that 
have beene buj; a while in Ireland can well witness." — View ofthe 
State of Ireland, Dublin Edition, p. 89. Campion remarks, thatin 
his own time (1567), the Irish were getting more cleanly in their ha- 
bits than they had been formerly. " They have now" he says " left 
oíf their saffron, and leame to wash their shirts fonr or five times in 
the year. Proud they are of long crisped glibbs, and doe nourish 
the same with all their cunning : to crop the front thereof, they take 
it for a notable piece of villainy." History of Ireland, Dublin Ed. 
p. 25. 

6 O little robin. This is rather severe on the part of Aenghus, 
when he comes to deal with one who had probably been his old lord 
and master, but they had a falling out. 

7 O'Reeffe's house. This was the head 0'Keeffe, who at this time 


21tiat) 'x 5^t) 1^) b'& b&cAó, 

'S a Iatj CA\|ce 'oa cn:eACA]5 ; 

Le ceAfCA|T) TT)é beic bujóeAÓ, 

«Dob' é fiT) Tr/AoióeAcc 'fAT) ^-Ce^pAi^. 

2Íti&t) A5UT 1 ujT-je IacAjt), 

2t)o cuib a £»-^15 11] CÍ)eAllACA]T) ; 

Jf beACATTi cno]óe o't) 5-cu^b t*]T) t*IAt), 

'S 5UT1 bA c]£e at) c-ujT-^e 'tja't) c-atiat) ! 

Batjtjctiacc cTtjce Cf)eAllAcA]T) ati ló, 
SeAt)-Tf)T)A 5AT) Iót) b*A b-cAcAÓ le 5jie]T? ; 
Jf feTTt^ce T*eAT)5-cl]AbAC a b]b, 
3° b-]ce b]ó a']* cati a eif. 

O PnÚCA]* 50 2t)u]5-6AllA AT) CftACCA, 

<t)o béAn a ce]TT tdati a cA t*]; 

jf bTieA^ÓA at) c]n at) c]n An féACA]T), 

2lcc t)] cjfi b]Ó t)A éA&A]5 í' 

was Art Oge (son of Art, son of Donnell), who was inaugurated in 
the year 1583. He had castles at Dromagh on the Blackwater, at 
Du-Aragil, Dromtarriff and Dromsicane, in the barony of Duhallow. 
In the reign of James 11., Donnell O'Reeffe the head of the family 
(son of Manus, son of this Art Oge), was slain at Aughrim, and his 
son Donnell Oge, then in his sixteenth year, went to France at the 
head of his father's company of foot. 

1 Ceapach, now Kippagh, or Cappagh, in the parish of Castlemag- 
nor, close to the Blackwater. This was one ofMac Carthy'shouses. 
See Smith's Corh, b. 11., c. vi 

2 O'Callaghan's house. The principal house of O'Callaghan was 
Drumneen Castle, on the Blackwater. The territory of Pobble 
O'Callaghan, comprised the parishes of Kilshannick and Clonmeen, 
in the barony of Duhallow, and County of Cork. See Harris'sEdition 
of Warés Antiquities, p. 72, and Smith's History of Cork, book 
11., c. vi. In the reign of King James 1., O'Callaghan pulled down 
his old castle at Drumneen, and erected a very stately house on its 
site ; but this mansion was ruined during the wars of the Revolution. 
Dr. Smith describes the ruins thus : — e< The castle bawn is large, 
and well enclosed with an high stone wall, flanked with round tow- 
ers • and the whole, though in ruins, from the opposite side of the 
river, by its lofty situation has still an august appearance." The 
head of this family was transplanted by Cromwell to the County of 
Clare, where they became extinct early in the nineteenth century, 


Bread without being drowned in butter, 
And much chaff in its body ; 
In order to make me thankful, 
This was my fare at Ceapach. 1 

Bread and water from a pool/ 

Was my supper at O'Callaghan's house; 2 

It is difficult to have heart after such a supper, 

The water was twice thicker than the bread ! 

The women of O'Callaghan's country, 
Are old women without store, — basíing in the sun ; 
Withered and slender-bodied they be, • 

Till eating food — and after it. 

From Prughus 3 to the famed Magh Ealla/ 
1 will describe it as it is ; 
The country is beautiful to be looked at, 
But it is not a country of food or raiment. 5 

but some ofthe junior branches still remain in Clare. In 1750, 
Cornelius O'Callaghan, Esq., had a good house at Clonmeen, near 
the parish church. He was the head of a junior branch ofthisfa- 
mily, not disturbed by Cromwell. 

Lord Lismore is the present head of the O'Callaghans, and John 
Cornelius O'Callaghan (son of John, son of Thomas), author of the 
Green Book, descends from a member of this family who settled in 
Dublin early in the last century. 

3 Prughus, now Prohus, or Pruhust, a small townland situated 
inthe parish of Rilbolane, between Charleville and Tullylease, in the 
barony of Orrery and Kilmore, and County of Cork. It was at this 
time the seat of one of the G-eraldines. Ordnance map, sheet 6. 
At present it is the seat of Captain W. Evans. There is another 
place of the same name in the parish of DromtarriíF, barony of Du- 
hallow. Ordnance map, sheet 30, 39. 

4 MaghEalla, i.e., the Plain of the Ealla, now the town of Mal- 
low in the County of Cork. From this name it is clear that the 
name Eaíla was anciently applied to that part of the river Blackwa- 
ter lying between Kanturk, where the modern river Allow (Ealla) 
ends, and the town of Magh Ealla, or Mallow. 

5 Food or raiment, i. e., the country is fertile and beautiful, but 
the inhabitants are so idle, and ignorant of agriculture and manufac- 
tures, that they do not know how to avail themselves of the natural 
resources of the land to produce food and raiment. 


2Í5 fiubxsl b&rt) aji 5oncA|b ^lAfA, 

O rv]OT)-C\)'W5 3° lMÍ0*r** 

)X 10H)8a CA]lle<vc cof-bu|8e a 5-ce|nc, 

2ln fub OjibnAióe A5 ]t>5e]lc. 

'S at) b-cnug 8011 a a b-c&nlA a fq 5, 

9X ne^b cajc a S-Cnjl-jrjl; 

V\] b-f uAUAf a })-&t)y\&t)r) b'jir), 

2lblAT)T) le Íj-11T) 8& T)-]Of A|t>t)- 

Mí fu]l feAn5 tjac b-cé|b An 5-cúl, 
2lcc feAn^ drjrjofc le ck>it)t) 3b]obút>; 
Be&5 At> c--|ot>5t>A8 a n)-be]c tdati ca, 
2I5 -p Af a t)-olc 5AC AOt) l&. 

,( t)ot)t)cbA6A 3b^At)t)A )*leif5e, 
<Do béAn a ce]fc n)An c& t*é ; 
BffeAC u|lc c]5 6e bo Tfi'&t, 
2tn 5AÓ Ia An f e^6 a né. 

1 Orrery, OribnAi&e, a barony in the north of the County of Cork. 
See Smith's Cor\ book 11., c. vi. 

2 Grazing, The reader must here bear in mind that the period 
at which this satire was written, the land was stricken with famine, 
for the corn hadbeenintentionally destroyedby the English soldiers. 
Spenser writes : — " Out of every corner of the woodes and glynnes 
they came creeping upon their hands for their legges could not bear 
them....they did eate the dead carrions, happy where they could finde 
them ; and if they found a plot of watercresses or shamrockes there 
they flocked as to a feast for the time ." — Spenser's View ofthe State 

of Ireland See note 10, pp. 79, 80, infrá, Also Fynes Moryson: — 

"No spectacle was more frequent in the ditches of towns and especially 
in wasted countries, than to see multitudes of these poor people with 
their mouths all coloured green by eating nettles, docks, and all things 
they could rend up above ground." Book ni., c. 1. 

3 Cuil-iseal, i.e., the low corner, or angle, now Coolishil, in the 
parish of Carrigparson, barony of Clanwilliam, and County of Lime- 
rick. Ordnance map, sheet 14. 

4 Clann Gibbon, now a half-barony in the north of the County of 
Cork ; the country of the Fitz-gibbons, the chief of whom was called 
the White Knight. This family descends from Gilbert, or Gibbon, 
the bastard son by the wife of O'Coinin, of John of Callan Fitzgerald, 
ancestor of the house of Kildare and Desmond. See Smith's History 
of Corh, book 1., c. 1., and book 11., c. vi., vn., where the fact of 
Gibbon's illegitimacy is intentionally concealed. The lord of this 
tract in our Bard's time, was John Oge Fitz-John Fitz-gibbon, com- 
monly called the White Kmght. There was a bnAot) AiUre, a corro- 
sive drop, or a bnaoT) nt)rm e > *•«•» generation drop, falling on the tomb 
of this family in the abbey of Kilmallock, which wore a hole through 
the horizontal flag-stone that covered it. It ceased on the death 


My walkmg through green fields, 
Erom Little Easter till Lanimas ; 
There are many yellow-legged hags in rags, 
Throughont Orrerv, 1 a grazing. 2 

How miserable was my state within, 

In a cat's nest at Cuil-iseal; 3 

I got not enough of butter, 

For a wafer — should I eat it with butter. 

There is no anger but abates, 

Except the anger of Christ with the Clann-Gibbon; 4 
Small is the wonder that they should be as they are, 
Increasing in evil every day. « 

Q'Donoghue of Gleann-Eleisge ! 5 

I will give his character as it is ; 

An increase of evil ever comes from him, 

Every day during his life. 

of the last heir. A similar one is said to have contirmed to fall on 
the tomb of the 0'Fogartys, in the abbey of Holy Cross, until the 
last heir of Castle-Fogartv was hanged at Clonmel, when the pro- 
perty devolved to the family of Lanigan, 

Mr. Hardiman quotes this quatrain in a note on Lord Clare, 
Chancellor of Ireland. See Irish Minstrelsy, vol. u. 9 p. 132. 

5 Gleann-Fleisge, i.e., the vale of the river Flesk, in the baronv 
of Magunnihy, County of Kerry. The head of this family is still 
extant, and enjoys considerable property ; and there is a junior 
branch of high respectabilitv, now represented by Lieut. Col. Daniel 
O'Donoghue, from whose branch of the family the late Daniel 
O'Connell, Esq., M. P. was descended in the female line, as in the 
following table : — 

1. Geoffrey O'Donoghue of Glenflesk. 

2. Teige O'Donoghue. 

3. Daniel O'Donoghue. 

4. Du ff O'Donoghue, died 1727, aged 57, bur ied at Muclcrus. 

5. Geonrey O'Donoghue. 5. Mary, m. Daniel 

J O'Connell of Derrynane. 

6. Patrick O'Donoghue, j 

| Daniel, 6, Morgan O'Connell 

7. Daniel, Lt. Colonel, living. of Carhan. 

8. Rev. F. T. O'Donoghue of Daniel O'Connell, 

Prover, Enutsford, Cheshire. Esq., M.P. 


)X TTJAItt^ feO TttAub A 8eATtbttíVCAl|t, 

pA oiÓTteAÓc 3b^eAT)T)A 'pleifse I 
2i'f ttiuiia ttATb q>\) tt-beATts-blAcAig, 
Nac nAib t>eAÓ At)t> TqATT) au TTie^^e ! 

'ClgeAUTJA T)A 5-CttUAC, 

Jbju cuaca A^up f a^auc ; 
pu^c at) V)0\\j\x) bo't» oíóce, 
Bíof bo t)a bAoinjb Ai^e. 

J Ti-beAf-^itTb^vfT) cati 5AÓ a-|c ejle, 
TÁiillib ó^0\)\^ bul ati t)eAtr) ; 
pfu rrtAn cuoiT^b c]oin; a 5-qot)t>cAÓ, 
^ t)ul bo cot\v|b ciottrnA a TxeAC ! 

Mí b-^AgAib TTtAoc-cl<vt)t) ^tJuifTjf, — 

(2Í)ATC1TT) bójb A TJ-beAUUA fjAb), — 
KAt>t> thoIca T}A aoiu u^n)-X] 3 
^DAOitíe boccA uAjfle -|Ab. 

Luin^ne bneACA a 5-ceinqb l/jt>, 

'S A 5-CA]lleACA AU t)A|*5 TT)AU CO]t) TTJAOll ; 

3^t bnif au ^Ab le b-é]5eAt) 5otica, 

'S at) 5-CA]tnA|5 uac f e 1 & in truncAcc fAOj. 

1 DrunJi. To be drunk at this time was deemed honourable. As 
the O'Donoghues never took any beverage stronger than stale but- 
termilk, they should not have been so apt to quarrel as those who 
drank wine to intoxication ; and yet one brother killed the other 
with cold-blooded deliberation » 

2 The Lord of the Reeks, i.e , Mac Gillycuddy of the Reeks, near 
the Lakes of Killarney, a branch of the O'Sullivan Mor family. Mac 
Gillycuddy is still extant, and highly respectable. 

3 Clann Maurice, i.e., the family of Fitz-Maurice, who gave name 
to the barony of Clanmorris, in the County of Kerry. They de- 
scended from the celebrated Ravmond Le Gros, one of the chief 
barons of the English Invasion. The present head of the family is 
the Marquis of Lansdowne, who is not a poor gentleman like his 
ancestor in the time of our author. 

4 Poor gentlemen. This is not very severe, but it is very clear 
from the observations of English writers on the same subject that 
our Bard had received suggestions as to the points he was to touch 
upon. Sir John Davies, in his Discovery, has the following remarks 
on the poor gentry of Ireland, who had multiplied to such numbers 
in consequence of the law of Gavelldnd, which he condemns. 

" Besides these poor gentlemen were so aífected unto their small 
portions of land, as they rather chose to live at home by theft, extor- 
tion, and coshering, than to seek any better fortunes abroad, which 
increased their septs or suj-names into such numbers as there are not 
to be found in any Kingdome of Europe, so many gentlemen of one 


Wo to him who slew his brother ! 
Eor the inheritance of Gleann-Meisge ; 
And that, unless from stale buttermilk, 
No one ever there was drunk ! 

The Lord of the Keeks,* 
[Hates\ both lavman and priest ; 
As the daisy hates the night 
He hates mankind. 

In Desmond, above all other places, 

They deserve from God to go to heaven ; 

On account of their fasting for their crimes, ^ 

They should go dry-footed in. 

The simple Clann-Maurice 3 shall not get, 
(I forgive them what they have done) 
A verse of praise or satire from me ; 
They are poor genttemen. 

SpecMed shins in linen rags, 

And their hags yoked like bald dogs • 

Until hunger forces them to break their gads, 

\_Aré\ in Carrick, 5 which cannot be relieved. 

blood, family and surname, as there are of the O'Neals in Ulster> 
of the Rourks in Connacht, of the Geraldines and Butlers in Mun- 
ster and Leinster. And the like may be said of the inferior blood3 
and families, whereby it came to pass in times of trouble and dissen- 
sions that they made great parties and factions adhering one to 
another with much constancy ; because they were tied together vin- 
culo sanguinis ; whereas rebels and malefactors which are tied to 
their leaders by no bondeither of duty or blood, do more easily break 
and fall oíf one from another. And besides, their cohabitation in one 
country or territory gave them opportunity suddenly to assemble 
and conspire, and rise in multitudes against the Crown. And even 
now in the time of peace, we find this inconvenience, that there can 
hardly be any indifferent trial had between the King and his subjects, 
or between party and party by reason of this general kindred and 
consanguinity." pp. 170, 171, 172. 

5 Carrichj i.e., the Rock. This was C<vt*tv<M5 atj poill^ now Carriga- 
foyle on the Shannon in thebarony of Iraghticonnor, County of Kerry, 
the chiefseat, atthis period, of John, son of Connor O'Connor Kerry. 
There are various respectable families of thisrace now in Ireland ; and 
in Austria Daniel O'Connell O'Connor Kerry isanofíicer of distinc- 
tion who was commandant at Lodi, under Radetski, in 1848. William 
Conner, Esq., the eldestsonof General Arthur Condorcet O'Connor, 
and founderof the Irish Tenant League,and Fergus O'Connor, M. P.> 
are' among the most conspicuous of this family in our time. Major 
O'Connor of Kerry, is of the race of Murtough Muimhneach 
O'Connor of Silmurry in the County of Roscommon. 


2t)o cu]b & b-c]£ At) t)o|tA]5, 
D'tHiAbA]^ 5A0]c c]té £u]T)r>eo5Ajb ; 
6]b]]l ]Tf) A^Uj- A]t*vr), 

11]on b-t;é]b]n a r)-eAbA]t5&]l . 

«tVf u]l]T)5eAf (5^6 An cnuAÓ at) c&f), 
2ln cu]b b|5 a b-qg "Cr)Oít)&]f; 
«D'eA^l^ a fúl bAti) cne] tt) t?& tr/ cu]b, 
2t)o 5|te]rr) 5AI) bnújAÓ Att) bníV5A]b. 

CUi)i) At) ri)]c t/]t) 6att)0]T)t;, 
'D'e]]* a roxvnbcA tt)A]]t]b ffAb ; 
<t)o 5eAbA]n a n]An 50 R&c C<veU, 
1Ía b-]Ann acc ]t)-ait) aot)A]5 ]Ab. 

CAet)nA]óe, 5fi]obA, cnuA]ó, ^o^c^eAUc, 
3eAnnAC, cne Ac-lott), bnoi)5 bo]cceAlÍAc 

21 T)AO]Ó5]T) U]le 1)] tl)A]C ]tÚ]T), 

í)eAi) ceonA a't* cuju a r)-5AOAr)r) ]Ab, 

1 7%e JETortf, i.e , Hore of Castlegregory in the barony of Corca- 
guiny, County of Kerry. This family is of Saxon origin and their 
ancestor was called Hore from his grey hairs,— an inheritance which 
he transmitted to his descendants. All the Hores described in Crom- 
well's Roll of the Men of Ireland, are represented as grey-haired, 
There is another sept of this Saxon family seated at the Powle, now 
Polehore, near Rillurin, in the County of Wexford, of which Her- 
bert F. Hore, Esq., a learned antiquary and highly accomplished 
gentleman, is the present head. 

2 The house ofThomas, i.e., Thomas Fitzgerald, Knight of Glyn, 
descended from John Mor na Sursainne, bastard son of John of Callan 
Fitzgerald, who was slain at Callan by Finghin Reanna Roin 
Mac Carthy in 1261. The mother of this John na Sursainne, had been 
thewifeof O'Coileain (now Collins)of Claenghlais, but John of Callan 
slew O'Coileain, andkepthiswifeasaconcubine. The Knight of Kerry 
descends from Maurice Fitzgerald, who was another bastard son of the 
sume John of Callan, by the wife of 0'Kennedy. The aboriginal 
Irish were cruelly treated by those haughty Geraldines of Desmond, 
on whom a curse seems to have fallen fór their crimes. The most dis- 
graceful fact on record in Irish History is found in the old Annals of 
Inisfallen, in connection with the familiesof Fitzgerald of Desmond 
and O'Connor Kerry — « The most pitiful, the sorest, the most En- 
glish-like, and the most abominable act that ever was perpetrated in 
Ireland before, was committed this year (1405) in Desmond, viz., 
Dermot, son of Connor O'Connor, who was in captivity and in irons 
in the castle of the Earl of Desmond, i.e., of James, son of Gar- 


My supper iu the house of the Hore, 1 
The wind carried oíf through the wiudows ; 
Both the bread and the butter — 
They could not be separated. 

I suffered (though hard the case), 

On a small supper in the house of Thomas, 2 

From fear that his eyes should injure me 3 for my supper, 

My bit, without being chewed, stuck in my throat. 

The sons of that son of Edmond, 4 
After being killed they still survive ; 5 
You will find their track to Eathkeale : 6 
Do not seek them except in time of fairs. 7 

The Kenry-men, 8 hard hissing griffms, 
Hungry, lean-bodied, — a begrudging horde ; 
All their infants are evil-favoured, 
Make an enclosure and place them in a pound. 

rett, was blinded and castrated by Maurice, son of the same James, 
and one of the O'Connors." 

3 Injure me. The Bard got so much afraid of the begrudging 
eye of Thomas,that the bit stuck in his throat. The begrudging eye 
was believed to have a certain mesmerising effect on those on whom 
it was fixed, which caused them to stand spell-bound in helpless tor- 
piditv. The evil eye in other conntries is believed to have the same, 
if not worse eífect. In Ovid's description of Envy, however, no eífect 
of this kind ís mentioned 

"Pallor in ore sedet, macies in corpore toto, 
Nusquam recta acies, livent rubigine dentes ; 
Pectora felle virent, lingua est suffusa veneno.' 

4 The sons of 'that son of Edmond, i.e. ? the sons of Thomas, son 
of Edmond Fitzgerald, Knight of Grlyn. This quatrain is given differ- 
ently in other copies, but corruptly ; and the readings are not worthy 
of notice here. Edmond the son of this Thomas, was living in 1602. 

5 Still survive, i.e., like the cats who possess seven lives ! 

6 RathTieale, ft&t C^eUí or more correctlv, Kívc-5AeUj a town on 
the river Daoil or Deel, in the barony of Connello and in the Coun- 
ty of Limerick. It was anciently a corporation, and is still a good 
fair and market town. 

? Time offairs. They are out plundering at all other times. 

8 Kenry-men. These were originally O'Donovans, O'Mul» 
creevys or Creaghs, and O'Cathlains or O'Callans, but in the time 
of Aenghus 0'Daly, they were Purcells, whose chief residence was 
the castle of Ballycalhane (OA]le Uj cÍjacUii)), in this barony. 


Ro]\y bA]fce lAbATtA]b X]Ab, 

2I5 ÓTtbúgAb beACA ]*A0C]tA]5 ; 

2i]t too 6eA]tT)A]i) b'A íD-beib^ cuu]rjTj a 

430 6éA1}]!A]r)r) 0]t]tA lo]*5A6 T)A Ttrjol. 
Í^Ttfe AT)0]]t A]t gAO]C AT)]A]t, 

< Dnu]bce b]b a 5-CIo]T)T) U]U]Art) ; 
11 ] h)or)V C]All-5AO]ce A5A T)-b6]]tT > ]b, 

W] f?é]b]Tt A TTJf A T)-AC-|ÍOT > 5Allc. 
2lt) CftOT^AÓ T)AC beAUT)A6 n]ATT}, 

<Do -\i]t)t)e&T bu]c-fe a 2t)b]c U]U]Atí> ; 
430 6éAr) AO]]t bu]c bon/ 6eo]T), 
^3 u r b0 ^ 2lo]T)e bon/ A]Tbbeo]t) ! 

21 ]t]ATb 6 cocIa6 cú a rbú]n, 
M]o]i 1)-o]*51a6 cú ne neAc ; 
peAn At) cjge 516 b'e b-e, 
Ca'ti lé]5eA6 e jre]t) AfceAC ? 

<t)o aot) r/j6 e]le t)] bu]6eAc rne, 
21 5-cot)CAe lujnrprte Luinjnej 
2lcc b'A nobA]b bo co]\ b'r^ort, 
<t>o bAC rne A]rjr- b'A b-]qt6rbA6. 

1 i*br íAe lábourer. Their children are so precocious in penury, 
that they learn to speak before they are baptized, to prevent their 
labourers getting enough to eat. Rabelais introduces Garagantua 
as speaking before he was born, but our satirist is less hyperbolical 
and filthy, and not obscene in any one instance. 

2 Eastern doors. On many farmers' houses throughout Ireland 
there are still two doors in the opposite side-walls, in order that one 
of them may be kept open when the wind blows in the opposite direc- 
tion ; but our author complains here that it was not the direction 
of the wind that caused the doors to be closed in the region he is 
now treating of, but some other reason, which his readers may easily 
imagine. The doors here are not open on the side facing the roads, 
but on the opposite side, and even on that side they are closed 
against the bards and all other strollers, who seek for dinners and 

3 Clann William, i.e., the descendants of William de Burgo, seated 
in the baronies of Clanwilliam inthe Counties of Limerick and Tip- 


Before baptism they speak, 

Ordering his [scantv] food for the labourer; 1 

On my palm if I had them collected, 

I would burn them as I would the lice. 

Eastern doors 2 against western wind, 
Are closed in Clann-William ; 3 
Their doors have no regard to wind, 
They cannot again be re-opened. 

The fast which was never made before, 

I made for you, ! Mac William ; 4 

I will make a satire for you with all my heart, 

And for the Friday against my will. 

Ever since you were erected, mansion ! 5 
You were not opened by any one ; 
The man of the house, whoever he be, 
Where was he himself let in ? 

Of any thing else I am not thankful, 
In the swampy county of Limerick ; 
Except its roads, 6 so difficult to travel, 
Which prevented me from trying them again. 

4 Mac William. This was Burke of Castle-Connell (CA]rleAf) Uj 
C)]ovA]V5) m the north-east of the County of Limerick. 

5 O mansion l & ri>úm ! The original name of Castle-Connell was 
?J)úTt tí?]c Atjfcufatj. See Annals of the Four Masters J 'Eá. } J. O'D., 
A.D., 1213, p. 180. 

6 Éxcept its roads. This is truly satirical. The Bard felt obliged 
to the roads because they were so bad as to prevent him from ever 
venturing into the County of Limerick again. A traveller in the 
second quarter of the nineteenth century, had no complaint to make 
of the Corcassv County of Limerick, except the inhospitable sulky 
character of the people, its lousy beds, and the number of its cur- 
dogs, which annoyed him, following after him from the door of every 
cabin on the road side, and barking in the most unheard-of manner. 

ef It is really astonishing to consider the number of useless, low- 
blooded, ugly-looking cur-dogs, which the peasantry have in this 
County. How do they feed them ? Has the famine purged the land 
of these lousy sulky race, and their ferocious cur-dogs ? If so, 
Heaven is gracious" ! — A Satirist, 


<t)ul 50 TuAÓ-2t)úrb<Mt> ^it) ^A 6eACA]n, 
^D^DéAfi lAe t)í cIcacc<v|& TvjArb; 
2k>t) cujb 'pA jjaJaiI 50 s&vVj 

<t>ít AT) AT)T)lAlT)P bo ÓaII ia&. 

<£)o cuAttcu^CAf 6 2lc 50 Léjrrj, 
'CuAÓ-^ÍJurbAiT) a't* CIatjt) Cbo^lé^t) ; 
2^ rjeAC 't>A beACA T)jon bnot)T) bArb, 
Bot>t> a ccACA^n bo't) copAtt ! 

2lt> uaiti if l]ot)rbA]ne 43aI 3-CAif, 
T/|idccaII c^5CAnt)A Arj 'FbongAif ; 
<t)o óé-ATjf a&ao^ cncAc At) Crjl&in, 

21 Ttt-frj Att lCAC At) "LfA^ÁIt). 

^tjA'r* rtiiAt) Icac bul bo 3 \) goncA ! 
B^j 5AÓ CÁ]f3 a 5-CeAllAib,; 
í)o nu5 CcaIIa ^caII aji JottCA, 

215 ttOrtlAtt T)A 5-CeAll CAtl 'fA C-fflCACCA ! 

1 TAomowáCcuAóSObutijAitj^i.e^NorthMunster. BeforetheEnglish 
Invasion Thomond was a very extensive territory; but in the Bard 
Ruadh's time it was considered to be coextensive with the present 
County of Clare. 

2 Obsonium, ^r)r)UV^}' The English language has no word to 
express what Ai)i)Ui)i) means,i.e., anything taken with bread. How 
the want of it causes blindness has not been yet explained, but dry 
bread without salt is not sufficient to sustain life ; and prisone rs 
deprived of obsonium have remarked that, the sight was the first sense 
they felt affected. 

3 From the Ford to theLeap, o Úi 50 léjii}, i.e., from Ath-na-Borumha, 
now Ballina, on the east side of the Shannon at Killaloe, to Leim 
Chonchulainn, i.e., Cuchullin's Leap, now corruptly Loop-head, the 
south-west extremity of the County of Clare. Mr. Brennan, in his 
Irishpoem describing the Shannon, asks," if the Irish language were 
lost, what philologistcould ever discover that Loop-head was atran- 
slation of Ceann-Leime." 

4 Clann Choileain, i.e., the race of Coilean, son of Artghal, eighth 
in descent from Cas, the ancestor of the Dal-g-Cais of Thomond. 
This became the tribe-name of the Mac Namaras (fabled by Spenser 
and others to be descended from the Mortimers of England), whose 
country was originally co-extensive with the Deanery of Ogashin in 
the diocese of Killaloe,but in the Bard Ruadh' 's time, Clann-Choilean 
comprised nearly all the region extending from the river Fergus to 
the Shannon. 

5 The Dal-g-Cais, i.e., the race of Cas, son of Conall Eachluaith, 
King of Munster, A.D., 366. This great race branched into various 
families, the most distinguished of whom, were the O'Briens, Ma c 


To go to Thomond 1 was difficult for ine, 
A day-dinner they are never wont to take ; 
One supper and that scantily given, 
And the want of obsonium 2 left them blind. \ 

I traversed from the Eord to the Leap, 3 
Thomond and Clann-Choileain ; 4 
But a living wight did not bestow on me, 
The fourth of a groat in copper ! 

When the Dal-g-Cais 5 are fullest assembled, 
Around the Lord of the Forghas ; 6 
The plunder of Clare 7 would be effected, 
By half the people of the Lagan. 8 

If you wish to perish of starvation ! 

Be every Easter at Cealla; 9 

Cealla bore away [the palm] for starvation, 

In digging the church-yards 10 in the snow ! 

Namaras, MacMahons, O'Deas, 0'Gradys, and O'Quins ; and of 
whomthere are still families of high rank in Thomond, and elsewhere. 

6 The Lord oftJie Forghas, i.e., O'Brien, Earl of Thomond, Lord 
of theriver Fergus, so called here from his castle at Cluain-ramhfhoda 
or Clonrood, being situated on the bank of that river. 

7 Clare, i.e., the town of Clare, from which the County was called, 
when Thomond was formed into Shire-ground, in 1585. 

8 Liagan. This should be Lagan, of which name there were se- 
veral small districts in Ireland. There is much truth in what our 
satirist says here, as will appear to any one after reading the Siege 
of Ballyally, one small castle near Ennis, which was defended by 
one Englishman, in 1641, against the combined Irish forces of the 
O'Briens, who had only one leather cannon, which burst when they 
attempted to fire at the castle ! 

9 Cealla, now Kells, near Corofin, in the County of Clare. It 
was at this time the seat of a minor branch of the O'Briens, whose 
pedigree is given in an lrish MS. in the Library of T. C. D., H. 1. 

io Bigging the church-yards This is a most Goul-like lampooning 
which merited the flame of Heaven to descend on Aenghus 0'Daly. 
The poet Spenser, who came to Ireland in 1580 ,as Secretary to the 
Lord Grey, who received a grant of 3000 acres of landforfeitedby the 
rebellion of the Earl of Desmond, two miles west of Doneraile, where 
he wrote his " View of the State of Ireland," andfinished his " Faérie 
Queene," givesthe following horrid description of the wretched con- 
dition to which the people of Munster were reduced by famine in the 
Bard Ruadh's time, in his View of the State of Ireland, carried on 
in the shape of a conversation between Irénseus and Eudoxus (Dublin 
Edition of 1809, pp. 165, 167). 


JoTt)bA fCítAIC jtÍAbAC 5Uf-ft1Sl9j 

* * * A 5-Clll Cl/irlD » 

CAilleAc ^ob-géATt 't/a c ^ cIatt), 
21 5-CAifle&t> bub, fUAjt, j:oIatÍ7. 

21 £1Tt AT) CAT)T)A bl5 bA]T), 

J0T)ATI b'AtJATt) T/1T)T) A ^S^I^ & ÍS e > 

2ÍT) CAjTlglOT* boí/ All leAC bO ÓéAT)ATT), 

2tT)t)fA b-^OTisAf 50 trseAbcAjt é. 

21 t)-boTiAf CbAifleÁiT) C1)uit)T), 
<t)A TO-beióitw-fe Ttrjle Miaóutt) ; 

H] b-t:A5A11)t) AOT) b'A of^Ailc, 
'S bO 5eAbA1T)t) OCCATt b'Á lAbAÓ. 

2t)uiT)C|Tt CbUlT)t)e 2t)AC5ATf)T)A, 

)X cat)a ttiqb a 5-cuib ati&it) ; 

SatÍ)AiI A T)-1Tt) Ajt A TT)1AT*A, 

Ma b-eic t:a b-tfgib T*eAT)5Aii). 

Eudoxus. " But what then shall be the conclusion of this warre ? 
for you have prefixed a short time of its continuance." 

Irenceus. " The end will (I assure me) be very short, and much 
sooner then can be in so great a trouble, as it seemeth hoped for, 
although there should none of them fall by the sword, nor be slaine 
by the souldier, yet thus being kept from manurance, and their cattle 
fromrunning abroad by this hard restraint [i.e., which I propose] 
they would quickly cunsume themselves and devotjr one 
another. The proof whereof I saw sufficiently exampled in these 
late warres of Mounster ; for, notwithstanding that the same was a 
most rich and plentiful countrev, full of corne and cattle, that you 
would have thought they should have been able to stand long, yet 
ere one yeare and a halfe they were brought to such wretchedness as 
any stony heart wonld have rued the same. Out of every corner of 
the woodes and glynnes they came creeping forth upon their hands, 
for their legges could not beare them ; they looked like anatomies 
of death, they spake like ghosts crying out of their graves ; they did 
eate the dead carrions, happy where they could fmde them, yea and 
one another soone after, insomuch as the very carcasses they spared not 
to scrape out of their graves ; and if they found a plot of water- 
cresses or shamrocks there they ftocked as to a feast for the time, 
yet not able long to continue therewithall, that in short space there 
were none almost left, and a most populous and plentiful countrey 
suddainley left voide of man and beaste ; yet sure in all that warre 
there perished not many by the sword, but all by the extremitie of 
famine which they themselves had wrought. " And yet the Divine Spen- 
ser proposes a renewal of this famine to cut them all oíf, that he 
mightform a wilderness andenjoy his three thousand acres in peace ! 
It appears fromBen Johnson'-s letter to Drummond of Hawthornden, 
that Spenser died for lach of bread, in the great city of London. 

Many a swarthj, green, tough crone, 
* * * at Cill-Chisin ; l 

Many a sharp-beaked hag with a rnangy poll, 
In a dark, cold, empty castle. 

! man of the small white can, 2 
In which you seldom get a drink ; 
If you wish to keep the Lent, 

At the Forghas 3 you may tarry. 

At the door of Caislean [Innsi] Ui Chuinn/ 
If I were for a thousand years ; 

1 would not find one to open it, 
But I would find eight to close it. 

The people of the Clann-Mahon ! 5 

Thinly runs their bread ; 

Sirailar is the butter on their dishes, 

To the steeds 6 on which the pismires ride. 

Our cold-blooded Bard Ruadh too did not escape scatheless, for one 
of the Tipperary O'Meaghers stabbed himthrough the heart at a feast. 
Hurrahfor Tipperary, the County Palatine of the Earl of Ormonde ! 
Fynes Moryson, in his account of the expedition of the Lord De- 
puty Mountjoy into O'More's country, in August 1600, when he slew 
Owny Mac Rory O'More, and Calvagh Mac Walter, says : — " Our 
Captains, and by their example our common souldiers, did cut down 
with their swords^ll the Rebell's corn, to the value of £10,000, and 
upwards, the only means by which they were to live. It seemed 
incredible that by so barbarous inhabitants the ground should be so 
well manured, the fields so orderly fenced, the towns so frequently 
inhabited, and the highways and paths so well beaten as the Lord 
Deputy found them. The reason whereof was that the Queeris forces 
during these wars, never till then came amongst them" See Annals of 
the Four Masters, Ed. J. O'D., A.D. 1600, p. 2179. 

1 Cill-Chisin, i.e., Cisin's Church, now Kilkishen, in the barony of 
Tulla, County of Clare. It was at this period the seat of Rory, son 
of Mahon Mac Namara. MS. Trinity College, Dublin, E. 2. 14. 

2 O man of the small white can, i.e., a strolling Geocach, who 
carried a can for begging milk : known to antiquaries as a Meadar. 

3 Forghas, i.e.j the river Fergus, in the County of Clare. 

4 Caislean Chuinn. This is probably intended for CAjrleívn lunre 
Uf C\)U}\)-(), the Castle of Inchiquin, in the County of Clare, which was 
at this period the chief seat of the baron of Inchiquin. 

5 Clann-Mahon, i.e,, the Mac Mahons of Corca-Bhaiscin, in the 
south-west of theCountyof Clare. William Coppinger, Esq., of 
Barry's Court, Cork, is grandson by the mother's side of the last 
chief of this family who resided at Cleana, in Corca-Bhaiscinn East. 

6 Steeds. ftA b-e]c« There is clearlv some corruption of the text 



Cloc a b-pTi6cA 't/At) 3-Coftfi-bA|le, 
Í)út) b<v AÍA]t>t> CAob au CAob; 
<Do có^bAb cun? neAcc ah A]c, 
TAb at) bA l]A5 aca eAcojinA AnA-on. 

TeAÓ 11] Í)aIa]5 bA Tnojt tt)ao]t), 
BnonnAÓ 5AT) bAO]]* A5 bno^ bAn ; 
Ba lón b'on^Án cIot* a cl]A]t, 

Ke fjAn^A COngA^Tl T)A f^ol T*eAT). 

C]AT) 0'CeA]tbA]ll 'fA cé]le, 
43] Af n^T 1 ^eATtnjAib TjeiTb-fréjle ; 

< P]AT' -pO^Tlbce, CO]t>t>C]TJeAC, CAf, 

Co]]tf>ce, cno]T)n-c-T , ]leAc, ceATjn-glAf. 


<1)0 CU]C TT)é ATt) pléfT^ AfceAÓ ; 

21 bubA]nc Ciat) 5un b-feATvu bo fpóftc, 

2t)é CU]C]TT) -pA 66 ATTIAC ! 

<t)neATn le'n b']ot>TT)A]T> at) otió, 

5uC T)A CAOTIAC ^TjA \)-^OÍ)-hó', 

T^tíe t^uaiti 50TICA a TTi-bnoinn, 
CeATibAllA]5 t>A b-feAfo^ ^-ci]tirn. 

21 U] °Jt)AO]lbe]]t5! a OUa]tt) 6]]reAt>t)! 
21 1> 5^0]]* A]lle bo b'feATiTi buAÓ ; 
2lt> 5-cu]Uf]b cú l]on)f a curn ttio c]ge, 
SeA]T]íAc 65, 5fio]óe, bu]be, ua]c. 

here. Qy. t)A buils í;a nicib i?a reAi)5*viij, i.e., the sacks under which the 
pismires run. 

1 Corr-bhaile, i.e., Odd town, now Corbally castle, in the parish 
of Cloonev, barony of ITpper Bunrattv, and County of Clare. See 
the Ordnance map of the County of Clare, sheet 34. At this pe- 
riod Corbally was the seat of Shane Mac Mahon Mac Namara. 

2 On a ford, to prevent people from passing, — to make them stand 
and deliver ! 

3 The house of O'Dahj, i.e., the house of Finnyvara, near the 
New Quay, in the barony of Burren, County of Clare. See p. 8. 
The ruins of 0'Daly's house and garden-walls are here to be seen : 
where tradition says he kept a College for íinishing the literati of 
Ireland in history and poetry. The monument of Donough Mor 
0'Daly is also still pointed out, not far from the site of the house. 

4 Cian O'Carroll. He was one of the O'Carrolls of Ely O'Car- 
roll, in the King's County ; but he was not the chief of his name. 
This family descended from Cian, son of Oilioll Olum, King of 
Munster, in the third century. 


A stone in the crock at Corr-bhaile, 1 

A fort which was beautiful on every side ; 

It was erected for enforcing law on a ford; 2 

There is but the distance of two stones between them. 

The house of O'Dalaigh 3 — great its wealth — 
Bestowing without folly at a white house ; 
It were a sufnciently loud organ to hear his pupils, 
Eeciting the melodies of the ancient schools. 

Cian O'Carroll 4 and his spouse, 
Are a pair that never forgot inhospitality; 
An aged, contentious, cross-grained pair, 
Wicked, drivelling, grey-headed. 

Among his sheep as I was running, 

I fell with a noise into his house; 

Cian said that it would be better sport, 

If I should fall twice out [i.e. doubly quick]. 

A people to whom the quern is dear, 
The voice of the [one] sheep and the one cow ; 
A tribe who felt starvation in the womb, 
The Carrolls of the dry beards. 

O'Mulderg '.e 0, Ollamh of Eirin ! 
Of fine wisdom, — of best sway ! 
Will you send with me to my house, 
A young, spirited, yellow foal of thine. 

5 Quern, t>nó, i.e., a hand-mill, which was much in use in Ireland 
in the beginning of the present century. It was also used to a late pe- 
riod in the Highlands of Scotland, though prohibited by the law of 
Scotland as far back as the reign of Alexander ni., in the year 1284, 
when it was enacted '^íjat na matt gíjall sregume to grjttfc gufjett, 
matsíorf), or rpe, ftittí) ímttti m^íne^, ejrcept íje íie compelletj ís£ 
gtormg, anu $e ttt lacfce of mpítteg guínlít sIjouUi grttra tíje jjamett." 

We know of no law ever having been passed against it in Ireland. 
We often ground wheat with it ourselves. We first used to dry the 
wheat on the bottom of a pot, grind in a hurry, and then eat the 
meal mixed with new milk. This was considered very wholesome 
food for hungry children among the Durnauns, and the inhabitants 
of western Ui-Deaghaidh, in Ossory, and is called in the Irish lan- 
guage pn-fcTpfa. 

6 O'Mailderg. We do not know who this Ollamh was who is 
here addressed by our Satirist. There is a poetical family of 
O'Maoilgiric, mentioned in the Annals of the Four Masters at the 
year 1088, but we have not ascertained whether or not there was 
any distinguishedpoet of the name in Aenghus's time. 


21 bobAjg! b^ív^bA]]* at) ^ujjeAll, 
<t)o't) 50|tc bnjbe, a^ut; é 5AT) buA]!) ; 
Cujnjrjé Ttié leAC-fA cutd bo qge, 
3^b ati but) bo 6a níge uA-|rn. 


Teine rfjón a b-qg Uí $)eACAin, 
*Pjn A^ur ^eoi.1 iotia ^ocAin; 
Coi,ne rnófi t)A b-£Íon-5-c<u>n b--pjuccA, 
pAoi, ^otjUo^AT 1 bó U^ 2t)eACA]n. 

BlTTJJeAf -peAÓTT)AT)AC bO TT)U]T)C]n 2t)eACA]Tl, A^Uf A 

búbA^Tic t)A rj-AonpAÓ at) " BAnb Rua6/" 2t)eACAjn 50 bnÁc, 

-T-AT) q t)ÁTl AbTT)Á]l fé é A T)-AO]1)tíeACC ATÍ1Á]T) ; A^ut; \e]x 

X]V bo Ú115 t;Aca6 fAnncAc bo't> TSÍ^ TS^I^IT 1 b0 D 1 '^ 
Iájtt) 6eA5-ÚApA 6e]f, a rn-bnAgAjb 9Xexy^\x\x, 5° 1**1° A 5 
bTiúccAb t:oIa a cuj np An At) lACAi,n fjn : 5]6eA6 ful ati 1*5105 
-pé a búbA^Tic : — 

JJac An cu^at" b'A]T)bneAcAib Tr|Arn, 
2lrt TT)Aiqb 2t)ÚTT)An, TDAiqit) i,Ab ; 
<Do TIU5 Ó5AT)AC °Jt)eACAin l&]t, lort), 
2lt) ojneAb b'AjnbneACAjb otitt) ! 

1 Clown ! a bo&Ai5 ! Campion writes that the Irish used despitefully 

to calltheEnglish in Ireland " Boddai Sassonai," and "BoddaiGhalti," 

i.e. English and Saxon churls. Historij of Ireland, Dublin Ed., p. 20. 

Bodach, now, strange to say, is a term of familiar and affectionate 

salutation in the Counties of Louth, Monaghan, and Meath ; as Z&. 

X&]Xce TtotijAc aBo&ai5» you are welcome nighhoor. But in Aenghus's 

time it was a term of reproach. O'Mulderg seems to have been apa- 

triotic poet, as would appear from his reply to Aenghus, for he says 

that instead of sending him home to his own house on a spirited 

young horse, as Aenghus requested,he wouldsend himoffhand-cuffed 

with a gad or withe ! — the meanest kind of manacle. Lord Bacon 

says that Bryan 0'Rourke, afterhe was found guilty of high treasons 

requested to be hanged with a gad, according to his country's fashion. 

2 O'Meagher's cow. This is a touch of satire which was felt by 

the T^eAÓTTjívTjAcj as directed against the dignity of his master and 

name-sake. The Irish chiefs generally employed their relatives as 

servants of trust. It is curious to remark here that the County of 

Tipperary finished Aenghus's cáreer. The murderous character of 

the inhabitants of this part of Ireland (whowouldnowmurder aScully 



Clown ! l you have left leavings, 
Of the yellow field, and it unreaped ; 

1 will send you to your house, 

With a gad on your two wrists from me. 


A large fire in the house of O'Meagher, 
Men and meat beside it ; 
A large cauldron of fermented wine-grapes, 
Under which O'Meagher's cow 2 calves. 

A servant of trust of Muintir-Mheachair stood up, and 
said, that the " Bed Bard" should never satirize any 
Meagher, because he did not at once acknowledge him ; and 
with that he made a fierce thrust of the sharp knife which he 
held in his dexterous right hand, in the neck of Aenghus, so 
that he began to throw up his heart's blood on the spot ; but 
before he expired he said : — 

AU the false judgments that I have ever passed, 
Upon the chiefs of Munster, I forgive ; 3 
The meagre servant of the grey Meagher has, 
Passed an equivalent judgment upon me. 

as soon as they would a Maud or a Waller), is mentioned in a very 
old life of St. Patrick, in which the Saint is made to foretell that they 
would remain disobedient to the laws of God and man, and murderous 
of their fellow-creatures to the end of time. Spenser, not knowing 
that St. Patrick had pronounced a curse against the County of Tip- 
perary, and particularly against that portion of it called Ormond, 
attempted to account for the murderous disposition of the people by 
blabbing out the following incoherent sentences about Counties Pa- 
latine : — 

Iren. " And since we are entred into speech of such grants of for- 
mer princes to sundry persons of this realme of Ireland, I will 
mention unto you some other of like nature to this and of like in- 
convenience, by which the former Kings of England passed unto 
them a great part oftheir prerogatives, which though then it was 
well intended, and perhaps well deserved of them which received 
the same, yet now such a gapp of mischief lyes open therebv, that 
I could wish it were well stopped. Of this sort are the graunts of 
Counties Palatines in lreland, which though at íirst were granted 
upon good consideration when they were first conquered, for that 


those lands lay then as a very border to the wild Irish, subject to 
continuall invasion, so as it was needfull to give them great privi- 
ledges for the defence of the inhabitants thereof : yet now that it 
is no more a border, nor frontired with enemies, why should such 
priviledges bee any longer continued ?" 

Eudoxus. "I would gladly know what you call a County Palatine, 
and whence it is só called." 

Iren. "It was (I suppose) first named Palatine of a pale, as it were 
a pale and defence to their inward lands, so as it is called the En- 
glish Pale, and therefore is a Palsgrave named an Earle Palatine. 
Others think of the Latine palare, that is to forrage or out-run, 
because those marchers and borderers used commonly so to doe, so 
as to have a county palatine, is, in effect, to have a priviledge to 
spoyle the enemies borders adjoining. And surely so it is used at 
this day, as a priviledge place of spoiles and stealthes ; for the 
County of Tipperary, which is now the only Countie Palatine in Ire- 
land, is, by abuse of some bad ones, made a receptacle to rob the 
rest of the Counties about it, by meanes of whose priviledges none 
will follow their stealthes, so as it being situate in the very lap of all 
the land, is made now a border, which, how inconvenient it is, let 
every man judge. And though that right noble man that is the lord 
of the libertv, do paine himselfe all he may, to yeeld equall justice 
unto all, yet can there not but greate abuses lurke in so inward and 
absolute a priviledge, the consideration whereof is to be respected 
carefully for the next succession.'' — p. 46. 

Tipperary remained a County Palatine till the reign of Queen 
Anne, and how this fact has stamped on the people the character 
which they now possess let every man judge. But besides this, 
it must be also borne in mind by the historian and statesman, that 
Waller and many others of the Regicides of Charless i. were settled 
in this very County by Cromwell, which added the cúrse of Crom- 
well to the curse of St. Patrick, and, to the influence of the cursed 
privileges of the Earl of Ormonde, to perpetuate the murdering 
dispositions of the men of Tipperarv. 

Sir Richard Cox inveighs against the murderers of Charles i. 
in the following words, which help our conclusion that their settle- 
ment in Tipperary added the curse of Cromwell to that of St. Pa- 
trick upon that part of Ireland : — 

" And now how gladly would I draw a Curtain over that Dismal 
and Unhappy Thirtieth of January, wherein the Royal Father of our 
Country suífered Martyrdom ! Oh ! that I could say, they were 
Irishmen that did that abominable act; or that I could justly lay it 
attheDoor of thePapistsf whatablood-thirstyvillain! Oh! Oh!]. But 
ho w much soever they might obliquely or designedly contribute to it, 'tis 
certain it was actually done by others, who ought to say with the Poet, 

" Pudet hsec opprobria nobis 
Etdici potuisse, et non potuisse refelli." — Part 2, p. 106. 

3 Iforgive. This is a quatrain of repentance, to prevent the ve- 
nom of the satire falling on the chiefs. 


[A versified paraphrase, or imitation, of Aenghus 0'Daly's Sa- 
tires, by James Clarence Mangan, arranged to agree with the 
Stanzas as they now stand in the original Irish — with the ranns 
omitted by J. C. M. pointed out in foot notes, by J. O'D.] 


What I think of the Coarbs of Fenagh, 
Much as they boast of their shrines, — 
And extensive, rich glebe lands, 
Their books and long list of Divines. 

These Roddys are niggards and schemers, 

They are venders of stories (odd dreamers), — 

^Who talk of St. Kallin's miraculous powers, 

And how he continually showers wealth on their tribe. 

They are worse, in good sooth, than I care to describe, 

Moreover, if you sit at their table, 

You'H soon think the Barmecide's banquet no fable ! l 

I called on them once on Shrove Tuesdav, at night, 
Eut the devil a pancake, flour, oatmeal, or brancake ; 
In parlour or kitchen, saluted my sight. 
I walked oíf. Fd have starved ere Fd pray to 
One imp of the gang for a single potatoe ! 2 

By my oath, 3 my friend Charley, 4 youVe covered with shame, 

And a cloud of dishonour, the name of O'Conor ! 

You stint your poor children, — you starve your fair dame !■ 

They are all such squalettes as a man shall 

See once. Tor Heaven's love give them something substantial ! 

1 Barmecide's lanquet. See the story of the barber's sixth brother 
in the Arabian Nights Entertainment> Halifax Edition of 1851, 
f< Come on" said the Barmecide, " let us have something to eat ; then 
he called to his servants, and ordered them to bring in some victuals 
but no servant appeared ; yet he pretended that meat was on the 
table and invited my brother to sit down and partake of the feast !" 
p. 261. 

2 Single potatoe. There is no mention of potatoes in the original. 
In Shakspeare's time potatoes were a luxury. The poet Mangan, 
who had a horror of potatoes, is not very happy in his translation 

3 By my oath. A common adjuration throughout Ireland. J.C.M. 
The quatrain on the Muintir Eolais or the Mag-Rannells, is here 

* Charley,i.e., Cathal O'Conor of Ballintober, County of Roscom- 
mon. The quatrain relating to Clar Connacht is here omitted. 


Take Anamcha's clansmen 1 away from my sight ! 
They are vagrants and varlets, whose jealous ill-star lets 
Them do nothing, say nothing, think nothing right — 
And they swear so, Fd count it a sin to, 
Abide with them while I had Hell to jump into ! 

There be Irishmen, doubtless, who fast very hard, 

Por the love of God's Mother. If in Hy-Many 2 no other; 

And worldher motive move peasant and bard, 

To subsist on extremely thin dinners, 

They'll have banquets in Heaven as the stingiest of sinners ! 

The tribe of 0'Kelly — the screws whom I hate — 
Will give you goats' milk, mixed with meal, on a plate ; 
This hotch-potch they'll heat with burnt stones, and how droll 

Among them will tell you 'tis pleasant and wholesome ! 3 

The Clan-Rickard I brand as a vagabond crew, 

Who are speeding to wreck fast. Ask them for a breakfast ! 

They march to Mass duly on Sundays, 'tis true; 

But within their house portal, 

To a morsel was ne'er yet admitted a mortal. 

From the plains of Xilcorban 4 to Burrin 5 and back, 
Not a townland or bally, — from hill-peak to vallev, 
But knows that their true name is nothing but Stack. 6 
They tell them as much, and they'll kick hard, 
Against you, and swear that they are the Clan-Rickard, 

1 Anamchas clansmen, i.e., the O'Maddens, of the County of Gal- 

2 Hy-Many, the country of the 0'Kellys, in the County of Ros- 
common and Galway. 

3 Pleasant and wholesome. Called p^aipítj in some parts of Ire- 
land. It is considered very wholesome food for putting up muscle 
but not flabby fat. 

4 Rilcorban, in the barony of Leitrim, County of Galwav. 

5 Burrin. boittitjb, i.e., rocky, a barony in the north of the 
County of Clare, adjoining Clanrickard. 

6 Stach. Aenghus calls them Stichards or misers. A satirist 
could more effectually wound them here, for they were believed by the 
the Irish to be the descendants of Rickard O'Cuairsce, the son of a 
plebeian Irish follower of their supposed ancestor ! ! Others, how- 
ever, contend that the race of Rickard O'Cuairsce were the Vis- 
counts Mayo : sed cum de hoc nihil certe scio, nihil etiam assertive 


All the Jennings' 1 feed hogs, and are hogs too, I think, 
Such deaf and blind mopers ! Such ditch-water topers ! 
That is when they can have ditch-water to drink ! 
They have cumbered the land since the time of 
Magh-Guaire's hot battle, which poets do rhyme of. . 

In the house of the black-headed Gilduíf 2 I passed, 
A whole day without meeting one bit íit for eating, 
Heaven bless them ! — they do teach a sinner to fast ! 
I never yet saw or read of in story 
A niggardlier mansion than Gort-in-shy-gory. 

IVever fear, though, Dame Nora ! 3 No lady below 
The high rank of a princess, believe me, e'er winces 
'Neath my poet's knout. Savage sometimes I grow, 
But with none but the tip-top, 
And them I do lash, as a stripling his whip-top ! 

The Burkes of Cloghstookin 4 are a niggardly crew, 
They are rough Turks in temper, — and turf-sticks in hue ; 
They make the few guests they admit, rich and poor fast, 
On half nothing a day ; they make also their door fast ! 

The OTlynn, 5 and his clan, have been always obscure, 
Both in Albion and Eirin, and if I did sneer, in 
My own pleasant way at his doings, Tm sure 
He should thank me ; for what notoriety 
Would he have gained, but for me, in society ? 

1 Jennings, a very respectabíe County of Galway family — a branch 
of the Burkes. 

2 Gilduff, i.e., tbe house of 0'Shaughnessy of Gort [Inshy-gory], 
in the County of Galway. 

3 Dame Nura. The Lady Honora Ny~Brien, daughter of the first 
Earl of Thomond. The bard certainly had not the honour of satir- 
izing any Lady of higher birth. 

4 Cloghstoohin. A few words of Mangan-'s are here altered. It 
might be more literally rendered as follows :— 

At Clough-an-stookin, 'mong the Burkes, 
Dire starvation ever Jurks ; 
The child, with hunger, ever bawls ! 
Within their drear and roofless walls ! 

Mac David Burke's castle and mansion, at Glinske, affords a strik- 
ing exemplification of this desolation at the present day. 

5 0'Flynn. This was not OTlynn of Ballinlongh, chief of Sil- 
Maelruain, but 0'Flynn, Coarb of St. Dachonna of Assvlin, near 



I found at his clmrch bread, butter, and dirt, 
And the last very plentj, — but hurigrv as twenfv, 
I asted for a morsel. 'Twas blaek as my shirt 
What they gave me (my shirt is my jerkin), 
The butter was scooped froin a grimy horn-firiin. 

Kilcorban/ black church ! 2 As the skin or the fin, 

Of a fish is thy griddle bread, scaly and thin ; 

And thy whole stock of milk a gnat's mouth might absorb an 

Exceeding good half of. Lord help thee ívilcorban ! 

The friars of Moyne 3 give you wormwood enough, 
But that's rather (I fancy) uneatable stuff; 
Still thev'll feed you — that is, if you're hatidy at filling 
Your inside with cakes big and thick as a shiiling. 

I don't understand them ; they never may sigh 
Eor the flesh-pots of Egypt, but why should not I ? 
Let a priest, if he please, fast himself, like a Bramin, 
But he's really too kind if he kills me with famine. 

Bovle, in tlie County of Roscommon. Dun-Sandle, and Clan Gibbon 
of Umhall are here omitted. 

1 Kilcorban, a well-known church in Clanrickard. 

2 Church. The Herenach's house was generally close to the church. 

3 Moijne. The great abbey of Moyne, in the barony of Tiraw)ey, 
Countv of Mayo. The friars of Clare are here omitted, or rather 
what Aenghus said of the two great abbeys has been jumbled toge- 
ther by the poet Mangan. 



Escaping from Connacht I came into Leinster, 
Where I met neither Esquire, dame, chieftain, nor spinster, 
To give me a bit, till I came to the house of O'Bvrne, 1 
Where I got some roast meat, but cannot tell whether 

'Twas goafs flesh or leather; 
But for drink I plumbed vainly jug, pitcher, and churn, 
And a tallish tin tankard, with horn-nose. 
What swash they do tipple is more than myself knows ! 

The Iregaine 2 broad lands, which of old had their share, 
Of our conllicts of peril, lie weecl-grown and sterile ; 
Of cheese, bread and butter, their farm-steads are bare ; 
And, as to a smack of flesh-meat, you 
Might oífer them 10£ ere one llb would greet you. 

O'Conor 3 brags much of his cattle ; their milk 

1N e'ertheless, is enough to half poison that ilk ; 

They are poor, skinny, hunger-starved stots, the same e.attle, 

Whenthey walk you can hear their dry bones creakaud rattle ! 

The sooty-faced swine-herds of Granard 1 T hate, 
They are shabbv and seedy iri garb, and though greedv, 
As cormorants over the pot and the pla e, 
Yet O Heavens ! only think in their utter 
Abasement thev reallv eat bread without butter ! 

l O'Byrne, i.e., of Newrath, or Glenmalure, in the Countv of 

2 Iregaine, i.e., the baronv of Tinahinch ;n the Queen's Countv, 
the countrv of the O'Dunne?. 

3 O'Coimr, i e., Calvagh O'Conor Falv. The translator is wide 
of Aenghus's meaaiíig here. Táke the following ; — 

A hardful of meal ín a trough in his house ! 
Lord save them trom hunger, twould starve a good mouse ! 
'J he Minstrels the harp-strings, do rattle and flitter, 
With noise like the sow's singing bas> to her litter. 

4 Grariard, in the County of Longford. 

The quatrains relatingto the Dealbhna, and Feara Ceall, are entirelv 
left out by Mangan. 



Fd travel the islaíid of Banba all over, 

JFrom the sea to the centre, — before I would enter • 

That niggard Mac Mahon 1 — his damnable door ! 

He'll give you the ghost of a dinner, 

That leaves you, by Jing, rather hungrier and thinncr ! 

Should you visit that hungriest town in the land, 

IWed for nothing but no bread, which men call Clontobred/ 

You had best. my gay spark, make your will beforehand ; 

Par from getting an oaten or wheaten, 

Cake in it to eat, you yourself may be eaten. 3 

My curse on Drumsnaghta/ that beggarly hole, 

Without meat-stall or fish-shop, — priest, vicar, or bishop ! 

I saw in their temple, and Oh ! my sick soul ! 

A profound Irish feeling of shame stirs 

Thy depths at the thought, plaving hookey, two gamesters.* 

All the bread at the Donagh 6 would just give a peep, 
At one breakfast or luncheon, — a loaf and a puncheon, 
Por thunderstrQck beer, whose contents ran as deep ; 
As might serve at a pinch for a crab-bath, 
Were what I found in it one day on the Sabbath. 

1 Mac Mahon, i.e., chief of Oriel or Oounty of Monaghan. 

2 Clontobrid, a Herenach church in the County of Monaghan. 

3 Ynu yourselfmay be eaten. The translator goes too far here, foi 
Aenghus makes no allusion to eating the living. He merely says 
that the cake was so thin, small, and light, that the fly might carry 
it off under her wing. 

4 D r ums naghta, now Drumsnat near Monaghan. 

6 Gamesters. This is incorrect. Aenghus merely complains that 
the church of Drumsnat had no Herenach, and that there were only 
two cív|tii)l5 or P r i es ts (not ce&y.hA-\t or gamesters), at the church. 
He expected a regular parish establishment ; and every parish of 
any wealth had an Herenach, and three priests at the least. 

Donagh, a church, in the Countv of Monaghan. 


O'Reillj 1 the feeble, the palsied, the old, 
The most wretched of wretches the earth can behold ; [wet 
Diues along with his dumb sons, whose glazed eyes and lank 
Chin and cheeks, make his dinner a sort of death's banquet. 

To the north of Lough Sheelan, 2 in winter they say, 

The people subsist on a half-meal a day ; 

But when spring comes about, and while summer, too, blesses, 

Their h'elds, they have three meals of — shamrocks and cresses ! 

Can it be this vile Nebuchadnezzarish prog, 

That turns them all blind from the herd to the hog ? 

Cat and dog, man and wife, all are blind ; — there were none I 

Encountered who wern't, at least, blind of one Eye ! 

The Badger-faced Baron, 3 who stalks through Cloneen, 

Is the ugliest uiggard I think I have seen ; 

He knows not (the hound ! ) what veal, mutton, and beef are, 

But sneaks to and fro with a roost-robbing thief-air. 

In the darkest back room of his house you may see, 

This sharp-eyed Baron with a pot at his knee ; 

What is in it ? Thick milk ! That's the whole of his supper, 

No bread, not a bite, neither crust nor yet npper ! 

The men of Permana'gh, though certes no fools, 

Are a race that search bread crumbs as ducks search the pools : 

Of all shabby acts I know nothing forlorner, 

Than their practice of hiding the cake in the corner. 

DerrybruskaV bald lands the good God had not blessed, 
They've been wasted and withered by famine and pest; 
My bread there was thin as the rind of a hen egg, 
And rny fare was a butter ball, small as a wren eg^. 

1 0'Beilly. This was the last chief of Breifne, who died very old 
in 1601. 

2 To thf north of' Lnugh Sheelan. He alludes to the baronv of 
Tullvhunco, at this period the country of the Mac Kernans. 

3 The Maguire of Enniskillen. i.e., the English Maguire. 

4 Derrybruska, now Derrybrusk, a parish church near Enniskilíen, 
in the Oounty of Fermanagli. 

The Maugaurans are left out by Mangan. 


By me 'the Clan-Daly, shall never be snubbed, 

I say nothing about them, for were I to flout them, 

The world would not save me from getting well drubbed, 

While with them at my beck (or my back) I 

Miglit drub the world well without fear of one black eye ! 

[To place thee 2 high aloft above them all, 
To Erm's sons it is no shame at all; 
For as the brooks are to the swelling sea, 
So Erin's chieftains are compared to thee.j 

Tis a hungry house that of 0'Dogherty of Inch, 

For a meal you can get iri it of meal just a pinch ; 

And when you look round you for drink, there's a churnful, 

Of milk ; dust, and flies. Oh ! his Christmas is mournful ! 

Do you know the O'Cahans ? 4 Be thankful you don't, 

Eor you hardly could bear them ; Pve sworn not to spare them; 

But merciful still as is mostly my wont, 

I but point my poetical spear in 

Their dull eyes, and dub them the Dastards of Eirin. 

I stopped with the dwarfish 0'Crilly 5 awhile, 

And was treated in true " lock-the-larder-up" style ; 

May I never eat beef, but Fd now sooner dig my 

Own grave-bed, than lodge a night more with the pigmy ! 

Do you know Meva's Hovel ? 6 It stands not in pride, 
I adrnit, on the rocky and bleak mountain side ; 
If you can swallow chaff, and don't care if you grovel, 
In mire all night long, visit Meva's poor hovel ! 

1 C'rm-Daly, i.e., the O'Donnells of Tirconnell. 

2 Thee, i.e., tted Hugh O'Doanell, chief of his name, who died in 
Spain, in 1602. Mangan totally mistook the meaning oí' this qua- 
train, and we give it in a different metre from his, i.e., in that of 
Pope's Dunciad. 

3 0'Dogherty, i.e., Sir Cahir 0'Dogherty, the last chief of Inishow- 
en in the County of Donegal. 

4 O'Cahans, i.e., the CKanes of the County of Londonderry. 

6 O'Crilhj. Herenachs of Tamlaght O'Crillv, County of London- 

6 Meva's hovel, i.e., Bovevagh church near Dungiven in the same 


Little fly whom I see on the rafter's base left, 
All aioue, were you onlj accustomcd to theft; 
You might carrv ofl' to the Finn, without any flutter, 
"What I got at Meave's hovel of bread and oí' butter ! 

The tribe of O'Hara 1 are men of some height, 
But thev've never been known to stand stoutlv in fight ; 
They have no other music but the hum of the flies, 
And hunger stares forth from tlieir deep-sunken eyes ! 

There is one waste, wide, void, bleak, blank, black, cold, old, 
On the highway : its length is nearly one-third of a mile ; 
"Whose it is I don't know, but you hear the rats gnawing, 
Its timbers inside, while its owner keeps sawing. 2 

Big fellows the Kinelarty 3 are, with fat eyes, 

They are growlers and grumbiers even over their tumblers; 

Tor snapping and snarling, and quarrelling and lies, 

You might travel a long time to see their 

Bare equals on earth — or perhaps in Hell either ! 

Ard-Uladh/ vile sink, has been time out of mind, 
But a region of famine ; on its coasts you will find, 
Slaving barnacle snails with a mallet, that savage 
Old hang-dog-faced hangabone hangman Mac Savadge ! 

O'Hanlon, 5 the Tattered, I saw i;i the glen, 
Getting ready a dinner for Orior's 6 thin men ; 
He was roasting it brown on two bars of a narrow, 
Old gridiron there : 'twas the leg of a sparrow ! 

1 O'Hara of Crebilly, County of Antrim. 

2 Keeps sawing, i.e„ O Hara himself. The translator is here very 
wide of the meaning. Aenghus's words are much more satiric, 
Why did he build his house on the road side to induce travellers to 
look for hospitality in a house where nothing is to be found but pov- 
erty ; Why did he not build a hut far in the recesses of the moun- 
tains, where travellers would not have access to his door ? 

3 Kinelarty, i.e., the Mac Cartans of the County of Down. 

4 Ard- Uladh, i.e., the Ardes, in the County of Down, where the 
family of Savage were seated since the English Invasion. 

5 O' Hanlon of Mullagh or Tandragee, in the County of Armagh. 

6 Oriurs, two baronies in the east of theCounty of Armagh, O'Han- 
lon's countrv. 


I called at his house next, but found it was shut ; 
It stands on the Mullagh, a cob-web-walled hut; 
Without milk, bread, or cattle, 'tis odd how the braggart, 
Can boast as he does of his grain, kine, and haggart. 

You'll allow that I have'nt much flattered the Clans, 
But there is one that I will praise — the doughtv Mac Cans ; l 
Por if I didn't who would ? I guess, not a man on 
Earth's face — at least no one this side of the Shannon 2 

[Fve done now with Ulster ; 3 I go next to Munster, 
To see how they feast there, — expecting at least there — 
Some loelcome among mj old neighbours, those Blarneys t 
The O'Callaghans, Carties, the Crawlies, and Harnevs.] 


One day, feeling footsore and faintish, I made, 
By tardy approaches, my way to the Eoches ; 4 
It relieved me, at least, to creep into the shade ; 
I got bread, but my landlady sliut her 
Old rat-haunted cupboard at once on the butter ! 

Dunboy 5 of the crab-apple verjuicy wine, 

Which every fool praises — in silver-set phrases,— 

Is just snch a dog-hole as badgers might dine 

In for want of a better. No peasant 

In Munster would say he thought Hell more unpleasant. 

1 Mac Cans, i.e., of Clanbrasil, County of Armagh, where the 
TJpper Bann enters Lough Neagh. 

2 This side ofthe Shannon. Not in the Irish. The Bard Ruadh says 
that if he praised Mac Can the apple tree and its blossom would give 
him the lie, which is very severe. The laudatory quatrain on Mac 
Can is omitted b\ Mangan. 

3 I have done now with Ulster. This is here interpolated to give 
the reader notice that the Bard has done with Ulster. 

4 The Roches, i.e., the Roches of Fermoy in the County of Cork. 
a Dunbot/j i.e., O'Sullivan Beare's chief fortress in Bantry Bay. 


Three reasons there were why I lately withdrew 
In a hurry from Bantrv : its want of a pantry 
Was one ; and the dirt of its people was two ; 
Good Heavens ! how they daub and bespatter 
Their duds ! I forget the third reason. No matter. 

Mac Dermod of Mus^errv, 1 you have a way, 

Which at least I must term odd. You gave me, Mac Derinod, 

One hot summer's noon, half a wine glass of whey ! 2 

Before I could reach Ballincollick 3 

I swallowed six bushels of dust through your frolic ! 

The Clan-Carthy are vain — but as deep as a churn, 
They grasp all you have, and give words in return ; 
What good deeds you do them are written in water, 
But injure them once and they doom you to slaughter. 

The Mac Auliffes 4 I loathe,, for I never could yet 

Take to huinbug and humdrums, slow coaches and dumb drums. 

The/re a lazy, yet saucy, and cock-nosish set ; 

They sleep upon beds of green heather, 

And eat all that falls in their way — lamb or leather. 

Last Easter I spent with Mac Donough/ a stiff 
Kind of person, yet silly — so gloomy and chilly 
His whole house appeared that it did seem as if 
Easter Sundav, that holy and high day_, 
Had fallen,, by some fatal mistake,, on Good Eriday. 

1 MacDermod of Muskerry, i.e., Mac Carthy of Muskerry, who had 
his chief residence at Blarney. 

2 Whey. The poet is not very happy here. It should be, — 

" You gave me Mac Dermod, 

With a good deal of blarney one wine of glass of whey !" 

3 Ballincollich, now Ballincollig, at this time the seat of William 

4 Mac Auliffes of Castle Mac Auliffe, County of Cork. This clan 
inhabited perhaps the wildest and poorest territory in all Ireland. 

5 Mac Donough, i.e., Mac Carthv of Duhallow, at this time apow- 
erful Irish chieftain. 



The ragged 0'Keeffe of Cl?ragh ! ' he shivers and shakes, 

The sad ragamuffin ! He hasn't got stuff in 

His carcase to battle with agues and aches j 

But I spare him, he's drooping, the luckless 

Poor devil. The cloakless are alwajs the pluckless. 

Poor little Eed Eobin, the snow hides the ground, 

And a worm, or a grub, is scarce to be found ; 

Still don't visit the O'Eeeffe ; 2 rather brave the hard weather, 

He'd soon bring your breast and your back-bone together ! 

They are talters at Cappagh ; 3 — no more/ if inclined, 
You may swallow, as diet, the east or west wind ; 
For ^ou'll get little else ; just imagine or map a 
Black briary desert out — that's cursed Cappagh. 

The O'Callaghan tribe turn out lots of old crones ! 
Whom I gazed on with pity ! No blind-alleyed city 
Can shew such a group. With no flesh on their bones ; 
They sit all day long in some lawny 
Green sun-shinv spot, and grow shrivelled and tawny. 

Among those I ate bread, which the great 0* himself, 4 
Sent me down by his daughter, T drank mud and water 
Too, fetched from a ditch, and which stood on a shelf 
In a little brown earthen-ware pitcher, 
'Tis the beverage alike here of dame, duck, and ditcher. 

1 O'Reeffe ,/ Claragh, near Millstreet, County of Cork. He was a 
minor branch of the O'Reeffe family. 

2 The O'Reeffe, i.e., the O'Eeeffe of Dromagh, County of Cork, 
or chief of the family, at this time a fifth-rate chieftain in Munster. 

3 Cappagh, q? the seat ofapetty family of the Mac Carthys ? 
it is near Castlemagnor. 

4 The O' himself, i.e., Cornelius O'Callaghan of Drumnee, son 
of Dermod, son of Teige Roe. He had been prior of Ballybeg, 
but was elected chief of his name in 1578. 


All through Orrer/s l district, a land I was in, 
Frora Easter to August, while sunbeam and raw gust 
Pierced into my marrow, and peeled off my skin ; 
I saw women devouring wild radish 
And weeds by the way-side — a sight rather sadish. 

But of all places Desmond, 2 in truth takes the lead 
In fasting. I Pray God it may win its just meed ; 
lf a pilgrim gain Heaven for his sandal and scallop, 
Then Desmond, methinks, should course in at a gallop ! 

i Orrery, a half barony in the north of the County of Cork, which 
was desolated by famine at this period. Mangan has here left out 
the verses relating to Coolishel, as well as those carping at the 
Clangibbon, O'Donoghue of Glenflesk, and Magillycuddy of the 
Reeks. Mr. Hardiinan has given the following versified translation 
of the quatrain relating to Clangibbon, in his Irish Minstrelsy, vol. 
ii., p. 132. 

iS His Lordship [Lord Clare, Chancellor of Ireland] was descend- 
ed from the old sept of the Clan- Gibbons, and was the best friend to 
the English interest in Ireland that these latter times have produced. 
Against this clan our Irish bards have been bitterly invective. The 
following stanza is taken from a satirical poem written by Angus 
O' Daly, called ?iei)5ur ija tj-xxon, or the t>Anb Kuaó, about the year 

[Here he gives the Irish as in our original text] 

" The sternest pulse that heaves the heart to hate, 
Will sink o'erlaboured, or with time abate ; 
But on the Clann-Fitz-Gibbon, Christ looks down 
For ever with unmitigated frown ! 
Did mercy shine ! their hearts' envenomed slime, 
Even in her beam, would quicken to new crime." 

The following well-known epigram is added, to enable the classical 
reader to judge between it and the foregoing productiou of the Irish 

" Vipera Cappadocem nocitura momordit, at illa, 
Gustato periit sanguine Cappadocis !'' 

" A viper bit a Cappadocian — fain 
Her curdling poison through him to distil, 
But the foiled reptile died— her víctim"s vein 
Had poison subtiler than her own to kill." 

2 Desmond, i.e., South-Munster. The country of Mac Carthy 
Mor was generally so called after the suppression of the Earls of 
i>esmond. The quatrains relating to Clanmorris, Carrigafovle, 
>íore's house, and Thomas, knight of Glynn, are here omitted by 


The Mac Edmonds 1 are still to the fore, as I know, 
Though some people fancy them dead long ago ; 
There is a precious large lot of tliem near Shanagolden/ 
To whose dinners and drink I was lit-tle beholden. 

In Clanwilliam 3 they nail up the doors to keep out 

The snows and the storm-winds — 

Fd rather have warm winds 

Than cold in my bed-chamber nightly, no doubt ; 

But for this watch-box nailing I never 

Could try such a plan, though they count it right clever. 

Bread, fish, flesh, or fowl, you are safe to see none, 

In the districts of Thomond/ 

Eut lots of our beau monde, 

Who deluge your inside with wine from the tun, 

Ale, usquebaugh, cider, and sherry ; 

In íine all potations that make the heart merry. 

Erom the Pord to the Leap/ on a fine summer day, [lands 

I saw green lands and brown lands, Clan-ColenV broad town- 

In Thomond looked well ; but along my whole way 

ISÍever met with one poor copper penny, 

I might just as well travel íbr smoke to Kilkenny. 

1 Mac Edmonds. This should be íS The sons of Mac Edmond," by 
which the Bard Ruadh intendedto designatethe sons of Thomas, son 
of Edmond Fitzgerald, knight of Glynn, in the Oounty of Limeríclc. 
The portion relating to Kerry is also left out by Mangan. 

2 Mangan was certainly dreaming of his relatives here. His father 
was from SeAt)5UAU]i)t) or Shanagolden, in the County of Limerick ; 
and according to the son's report, he was both an indolent and indis- 
creet parent. See a sketch of Mangan's life, written by himself, 
but unpublished, in the hands of the Uev, 0. P. Meehan, of SS. 
Michael and John's, Dublin. 

3 Clanwilliam in the County of Limerick. Four quatrains are here 
omitted by Mangan. 

4 Thomond, i.e., North-Munster, the country of the O'Briens. 

5 The Ford to the Leap, i.e., from Kíllaloe to Loop-head, at this 
time considered the limits of Thomond at the east and west side. 

6 Clan-Colens, i.e., Mac Namara's country, lying between the Fer- 
gus and the Shannon, by far the best portion of the County of Clare, 


0, Burrin ! O s Burrin ! what sights hast thou seen ! 
'Tis known the Dalcassians 1 got into fierce passions, 
At seasons, — and then there were " wigs on the green \" 
And Clare suffered much, — yet men brag an 
Immense deal to-day on the banks of the Lagan, 

Fve a horror of Thomond, because after noon, 
In its houses you never meet noggin or spoon ; 
Twelve o'clock dailj there bounds the stomach's horizon, 
And food after that you can no where clap eyes on ! 

In the house of O'Brien (that's Donough) 2 I spent 
A Christmas that lasted till long after Lent ; 
~We had bread, butter, bacon, and beef in abundance, 
And oft round the board made the bottle, our sun, dance. 

In Cealla, 3 that region of hunger and storms, 
The sick die of want by the road sides in swarms ; 
If you fancy a grave where broad meadows lie fallow 
And blighted, ^ou'll find one in dark dreary Cealla. 

The pinch-bowel Clan of Mac Mahon, 4 the Red, 
Give you just on your dish the bare shadow of bread ; 
An ant put in harness, I think, would be able 
To drag their best cake and their biggest from table. 

The O'Carrolls of Ely, 5 love the quern's hoarse sound, 
ThevVe got only one cow and one sheep as I found ; 
After starving some while in the house of these skin-flints, 
My hands became hard, black, and meagre, like thin flints. 

1 Daleassians, i.e., the O'Briens and their cor-relatives. The poet 
here is wide of Aenghus's meaning. 

2 Donough. This is not in the Irish original. 

3 Cealla, a townland near Corofin, in the County of Clare, also deso- 
lated by the famine in 1847. Mangan has here left out the verses 
relating to Kilkishin, the Fergus, and Caislean Chuinn. 

4 Mac Mahon, i.e., Mac Mahon of Corca-bhaiscin, in the south-west 
of the Countv of Clare. Mangan has here left out the quatrain relat- 
ing to Corballv, the seat of one of the Mac Namaras of Clan-Choilen ; 
as well as that relating to 0'Daly's house, and its reciters of 
song ! 

5 The O'Carrolls of Ely, were considered as belonging to Munster 
at this period. 


Cross Kian O'Carroll dwells there, with hís rib, 
In a hovel the size of a basket or crib ; 
A withered and weazened old couple — forgetful 
Of God aiid tlie Devil, sick, snappish and fretful. 

Knocked do wn by a pig I fell into their den, 

Such an npset I hadn't got, Munsfer Jcnows ivhen ; 

I looked round quite bewildered, and heard Kian squall out, 

" Fall out again, 1 friend, or perhaps jou and I maj fall out \" 

Last O'Meagher, 2 for jourself — last, though cerles not least, 
Tou're a prince, and are partial to mirth and the Eeast ; 
Huge cauldrons, vast nres^, with fat sheep, calves, and cows and 
Harp-music, distiuguish jour house mid a thousand. 

[Here the poet was stabbed bj O'Meagher's servant, but 
before he expired he is said to have addressed these liues to 
his murderer : — ] 

Many are the bitter satires that I acknowledge (alas !) to have 

On the nobles and clans of Munster, but none ever requited 

me with a blow, 
'Till O'Meagher gave me mj death-wound : — I perish down- 

Bj a chieftain whom I eulogized — this is mj lamentation and 

mj woe ! 

1 Fáll out again. This is in the true style of the satirist and the 
best stanza in the whole of this translation. 

2 O'Meagher resided at Drom-saileach in the baronj of Ikerrin, not 
far from Roscrea. 


Page 13, line 1 6 from bottom, read "James Daly, the Cork Dis- 

tiller, was a native of Carrigtoohill, and died in Januarv, 

1850, without issue." 

line 3 from bottom, for " Laherdotv" read " Laherndota." 

note 1, read " Mr. Peter Lavalli, Peruquier of the Four 

Courts, Dublin," as it appears that he has not removed 

to Paris. 

14, line 5 from bottom, cancel " J. P." from Richard O'Dono- 

van, Esq. 
line 4 from bottom, for " Skibbereen" read " Ahakista." 

15, line 7 at top, for " Derry-clovane" read " Gleann-oulin.'' 

line 30, for " but of this we have no portion remaining'' 

read " but this was very short, and, rather an impreca- 
tion than a satire." A copv of it is preserved in a MS. 
in the Librarv of Trinity* College, Dublin, H. 3, 17, 
p. 840, which runs as follows : — 

" Cetj colc A|t cnib ccn TjeTie, 
Cet) 5e|xc tenbu toT>*ttA& Aidin^TJoe ; 
Cetj AbbA trt 1 a nAtji) nubA7, 
t?jro]tice c]r) £>jl bAinje n e 1TTe n°?r eT ) bne^tte." 

This satire, which was composed by Cairbre Mac Eathna, 
surnamed Crithinbheal, is the oldest specimen of the Irish language 
we have seen ; and we have here given it for the purpose of obtain- 
ing a translation from some of our Irish literati, for our next 
edition. It has been glossed by various writers ; and 0'Clery in 
his Glossarv, under the word CeniJitje, gives the following explana- 
tion of the first line : — 

•• CentJÍTje .t. Ti)]AtA beA^A, tjó clívjn beA^A, attjtjaiI a oúbAinc atj ftle 
CAitibne 2T)ac Gactja. 

" 3atj colc tot 1 c t>lb cettiJÍTje, x ^atj b^AÓ 50 Iuac An'íTjéítÍTJlb, tjo Afi 

56, note 1. — It is but fair to remark, that Moryson writes 

as an enemy to the old Irish race ; and besides, that he had not seen, 
with his oii'n eyes, the Northern Irish Chieftain O'Cane, and his 
daughters, sitting naked. It is moreover, not unfair to question the 
authenticity of the assertion of an unknown Bohemian Baron ; and 
it is but right for the lrish to argue, that it is not likely that the 
proprietor of a large territorv (such as O'Cane was), who could 
converse in the Latin language with a Bohemian Baron, would have 
been so lightlv, or so barbarously clad as Morvson describes him. 

Let the curious reader contrast it with the description given of 
the dress of a neighbouring chief O'Donnell, about half a century 
earlier, by Sentleger in a letter to the King, recommending that 


parliamentary robes should be bestowed upon him. He describes 
O'Donnell's dress thus: — " A coat of crimson velvet with aiglets of 
gold, twenty or thirty pair ; over that a great double cloak of crim- 
son satin, bordered with black velvet, and in his bonnet a feather set 
full of aiglets of gold." 

It may not be out of place here to remark also, that Moryson 
himself, incidentallv, aífords us a clue to the skill of the native Irish 
in agriculture, in the following passage, where he laments the ne- 
cessity of destroying the corn of the O'Mores in Leix, in the year 

" But the best service at that time done was the killing of Owney 
Mac Rory [O'More], a bloody and bold young man, who lately had 
taken the Earl of Ormond prisoner, and had made great stirs in 
Munster. He was the chief of the O'More's sept in Leix, and by his 
death (17th of August, 1600) they were so discouraged, that they 
never after held up their heads. Also a bold bloody Rebel Callogh 
Mac Walter [O'More], was at the same time killed j besides, that 
his Lordship's staying in Leix till the 23rd of August, did many 
other ways weaken them — for during that time, he fought almost 
every day with them, and as often did beat them. 

" Our Captains, and by their example (for it was otherwise pain- 
ful), the common soldiers did cut down with their swords all the 
rebels' corn, to the value of £10,000, and upwards, the only means 
by which they were to live, and to keep their Bonnaghts (or hired 
Soldiers). It seemed incredible that by so barbarous inhabitants the 
ground should be so manured, the fields so orderly feneed, the towns 
so frequently inhabited, and the highways and paths so well beaten, 
as the Lord Deputy here found them. The reason whereof was, 
that the Queen's forces, during these wars, never till then came 
amongst them." 

I N D E X. 


Adhna . 


Aes Ealla 


Aireach Brosga 


















60, 60, 
62, n. 



Balar Bemeann 
















Bann . 24, 

Bantry 12, 


56, 7i., 62, 
13, 14, 64, 

15, 16 

16, n. 
66, n. 
. 14 
54, n. 
69, n. 
36, n. 
59, n. 
14, 15 


n., 61 

6-3, n. 

44, n. 

78, n 

43, n. 
39, n. 
78, n. 
68, n. 
73, n. 

65, n. 
42, n. 

78, n. 
45, n. 

4, ra. 
36, «. 

79, n. 

48, n. 
75, n. 
48, n. 

5, n. 

13, 26 

28, n. 
63, 63, n. 
65, 65, n. 



Bard Ruadh (his death) 

Baron . 52, 


Barrett . 61, 

Barry*s Court . 





Beggar's Butter 

Beíl of the Kings (see 

Clog na Biogh). 

Binn-Eadair (Howtb) 

Blackwater 66, n., 68 
Bovevagh . 58, 

Boyle 8, 33, n., 43 




9, 39, n., 40, 
38, 39, 39 



18, 19 

42, n. 
84, 85 

52, n., 53 

47, n. 

n., 65, n. 

81, n. 


64, 65 

65, n. 

43, n. 


35, n. 

48, n. 
n., 69, n. 

65, u. 

59, 59, n. 

n., 62, u. 


«., 51, n. 

78, n. 

36, n. 
17, n. 
82, n. 

n., 41, n., 

n., lj, n. 

n., 82, n. 


73, n. 

Cahans . . 56, n. 

Caicher . . 22 

Caier , . 15, 16 

infidelity of his Queen 16 

death of . 17 

Cairbre . . 22 

Cairbre Liffeachair . 37, n. 

Caislean Ui Chonaing . 7 

Caislean Chuinn . 81, n, 





Caladh Locha Ce 

38, n. 

Clann Choilcain 8 

78, 78, n., 79 


70, n., 74, n. 

Fiamain . 

55, n. 




42, 42, n., 43, 


42, 42, n., 43 

43, n„ 80, 

70, 70, n., 71 

Cane (Dr.) 

57, n. 

Jenning, . 

40, 40, n., 41 


68, n. 


80,81, 81, n. 


56, n. 

. Maurice . 

72, 72, n., 73 

Carew 11, 12, 

22, n., 64, n. 

Rickard, 6, 

38, 39, 39, n., 

Carew's Prophecy 

23, n. 

41. n., 42, n. 


. . 22,25 

William, 70 

n>, 76, 76, n., 





23, n. 


66, 61, 67, n. 


22, n. 

Clare 8, 39, n. 

41, n., 44, n., 



44, 45, 68, n., 69, 

n., 71, n., 78, 

Carraig Locha Ce 

38, n. 

78, n., 79, 79, n., 

81, n., 82, n. 

Carrick 38, 38, 

n., 39, 72, 73 


81, n 


60, n. 

Cloch Labhruis 

17, n. 


57, n. 


40, 41, 41, n. 


73, 71. 


34, n. 


70, n. 


5, 10 

Carrion, food for the Irish, 70, n„ 


48, n. 

80, n. 


49, n. 





Carroghs , 



68, n., 69, n. 




. 71, n. 


47, n., 78, n. 


79, n. 




50, n. 


47, n., 55, n. 


82, n. 

Castle Blakeney 

37, n. 


52, 53, 53, n. 

Castle Connell 

77, n. 


79, n. 

Castle Fogarty 

71, n. 

Cluaintiobraid . 

50, 50, n., 51 


74, n. 



Castle Kelly 

37, n. 


47, n. 


36, n. 


78, n. 

Castle Mac Auliffe 

66, n. 


51, n. 


68, n. 


37, n., 63, n. 



Collins (see O'Coileain). 


51, n., 52, n. 

Conall Gulban 

54, n. 


78, 79, 79, n. 


64, n. 


37, n, 



Ceann Leime 

78, n. 


35, n. 


68, 68, n., 69 




69, n. 

Connacht, 6, 7, 8 

15, 16, 22, 26, 

Cill Chisin 

80, 81, 81, n. 

33, 36, 36, n., 37 

, 38, n., 39, n., 

Cill Chorbain 

39, n. 

40, n., 43, n., 

51, n., 52, n., 

Cinel Eoghain . 


73, n. 

Cinel Fhaghartaigh 

60, 60, n. 61 



Cisin's Church (see 

Cill Chisin). 

Connellan (Professor) . 


74, n. 


75, n. 

Clann Amhlaoibh 

66, 66, n., 67 

Conner (William) 

73, n. 


24, 63, n. 


38, n. 

Care (Earl of) 



70, n. 








81, n, 


54,n., 55, 55 t n. 


13, 14 





Corca Adaim 

3, 5, 10, 54, n, 


81, n. 




74, n. 

Corcomroe , 



82, 82, n., 83 

Corbally (see Corr-bhaile). 

Cork, 5, n., 10, 11, 

12, 13, 18, 22, 

«., 26, 27, n. y 6á 

, n., 65, n. , 66, 

n., 68, n., 69, n., 

70, n., 81, n. 


79, n. 


54, n 




75, n. 


59, «. 


50, n. 

Cresses, a luxury to the Irish, 

70, n., 80, n. 
Crioch-na-n-Airthear 62, n., 63, n. 
Crithinbheal . . 15,21 

Croaghpatrick . 42, n. 

Crom Dubh . . 42, n. 

Cromwell 27, n., 32, 34, n., 

68, n., 69, 

-'s Curse 


Crosby of Ardfert 


Plunderer of 

n., 74, n. 

86, n. 



7, 36, 37 

36, n. 

50, n. 

78, h. 

Cruimhthear Ar 

Cuchullin's Leap 

Cuil-iseal . 70, 70, n., 71 

Cummins (Rev. J., C.C.) 14 


Dallan Forghaill 

Dal g-Cais 47, 

Dal Riada 





6, 39, n. 

De Burgo 

Deel (see Daoil) 

Delvin 26, 


Derry . . 7, 



Derry Donnell (see Doire- 

Ui-Dhomhnaill) . 
Desmond, 10, 18, 65, n., 70, n., 
72, 73, 79, a. 
De Veres . . 49, n. 

54, n. 

59, n. 
42, n. 
47, n. 
76, n. 

47, n. 
42, n. 
54, n. 
54, n. 


Diana's Temple 20, n. 

Diamond . . 58, n. 

Digging the graves . 79, n. 

Dillon . . 26 

Disert 56, 57, 57, n., 58, n. 

Disert-toghill . . 57, n. 

Docwra . 55, n., 57, n. 

Doire . . 54, n. 

Doire Brosgaidh . 54, 55 

Ui Dhomhnaill . 6 

Donagh . 50, 50, n., 51 

Donegal 33, 42, n., 55, n. 

Doneraile . . 79, n. 

Doohy-Regan . . 46, n. 

Dowling . . 20, n. 

Down 51, n., 60, n., 61, n. 

Doyne . . 26 

Drishane . . 67, n. 

Dromach . . 68, n. 

Drom Ceat (Synod of) . 17 

Dromsicane . . 68, n. 

Dromtarriff 66, n , 68, n., 69, n. 

Drumcliff . . 6 

Drumneen . . 64, n. 

Druimnea . . 12 

Drumsnat . . 50, n. 

Druimsneachta 50, 50, n., 51 

Druim Naoi . . 12 

DuAragil . . 68, n. 

Dublin 6, 13, n., 25, 27, n., 28, 
54, n., 69, n. 
Duhallow 66, n., 67, n.. 68, n., 
69, n. 
Dunboy .• 64, 64, »., 65 

Dun Cearmna . 16 

Dundrum . . 61, n. 

Dungiven . . 59, n. 

Dungourney . . 5,n. 

Dunkellin . 39, n., 41, n. 

Dunmanus . . 12 

Dunsandle, 8, 10, 42, 42, n., 43 
Duntairbh . 66, 66, n., 67 

Durnauns . '. 82, n. 

Durrow . . 5, n. 

Columbkille . 9 

Dyce-players . . 18 


Ealathan . . 15 

Eachluath, Conall . 78, n. 

Eas Dachonna . 43, n. 

Ui Fhlainn . 43, n. 

Ealla . 26, n., 69, n. 

Edersgel . . 16 

Elder Tree (its quality) 35, n. 






36, n. 

Gallagh . . 37, n. 


82, n. 

Garlach Coileanach . 35, n. 

Emancipation foretold . 

66, n. 

Garrycastle . . 47, n. 


79, n. 

Geraldines, 12, n., 56, n., 69, n., 




, 54, n. 

73, n., 74, n. 

Eochaidh Doimhlen 

37, n. 

Generation drop . 70, n. 

Eoghan, race of 


Gibbon . 42, »., 43, n. 


35, n. 

his illegitimacy . 70, n. 


69, n. 

Gilbert . . 70, n. 

Evil eye, its effect 

75, n. 

Gilmore . . 60, n. 
Gillyduff . 40, 40, n.. 41 


Glandore , . 25 
Glencolumbkille . 42, n. 



Gleann Fleisge 70, 71, 71, n„ 72, 


60, n. 



5, n. 

Glenmalure . 12, 45, n. 


49, n. 

Goat's Milk . 38, n. 


45, n. 

Gqrt . ~ . 40, n. 



Gort-Innse-Guaire 40, 40, n., 41 

Eeale, river 

66, n. 

Granard 48, 48, n., 49, 49, n. 

Eeara Ceall 



»., 49 

Grattan . . 10 



Griffith . . 5, n. 


34, n. 

Guaire Aidhne . . 40, n. 



Guthar . . 16 

Fergus, river 



, 81, n. 




, 54, n. 



64, n. 



Hacketstown . 5, n. 




, rc., 35 

Heath House . 5),n. 

Finn, river 

59, n. 

Herenachs . 34, »., 48, n. 


82, n. 

Hill, (Lord G. A.) . 33 


48, n. 

Holly-tree, remarkable 



, 39 


, 43, ». 

quality of . 35, n. 




, 74, n. 

Holv Cross . 71, ». 


70, rc. 

Hore (H. F.) . 25, »., 74, n. 



. 74. 75 


11, 12 

Hy-Many . 8, 10, 37, ». 


49, n. 

Flesk, river 

71, n. 




Foighe (explained) 

43, n. 

Iar Umhall . . 42, n. 




n , 79 

Idle Men . . 18 

Forghas, 78, 79, 



80, 81. 
81, n. 

Idrone . . . 22, n. 
Ikerrin . . 23 


62, n. 

Inbbear Daoile . 44, n. 

Fort Lodge 


Inchiquin . . 81, n. 



3, 26 

Inishowen . . 55, n. 



Iraghticonnor . 73, n. 

Foyle, river 

56, n. 

Irish, their character . 67, n. 
feed on Carrion 70, n., 80, n. 


MSS. . 13, »., 34, n. 

Prophecy . 22, n. 

Galwav, 9, 10, 26, 



37, n., 

■ Rimers . 20, n. 

39,"»., 40, »., 41 

, n,, 

42, n. 44, 

Iregan, . 26, 46, 46, ??., 47 


, 51, w. 

Islands . . 41, n, 




James II. . . 10 

Jennings, . 40, 40, n., 41 

Jolin Mor na Sursainne, 74, n. 


Kane . 56, n., 57, n. 

Kanturk . 66, n., 69, n. 

Keane - - 56, n. 

Keenaght "~^ - - 59, n. 

Eelehar (Eev.'John, P.PJ 14 
Kells - - - 79, n. 

Kelly - - - 37, n. 

Kenmare - - 66, n. 

Kenry-men - - 74. 75 

Keon • - - - 5, n. 

Kernans - - 52, n. 

Kerry 12, n.,;l8, 25,- 32, 66, n., 
71, n..72, n., 73, n., 74, n. 
Killala - - - 44, n. 

Killaloe - - 78, n. 

Killarney - 32, n., 72, n. 

Kilbolane - - 69, n. 

Kilbryan - - 5, n. 

Kilconickny • - 41, n. 

Kilcorban 38, 39, 39, n., 44, 

44, n., 45 
Kilcrohane - 12, 13, 14 

Kildare - - 70, n. 

Killevy - - 62, n. 

Kilgobnet - . 5, n. 

Kilkenny -■ 28, n., 57, n. 

Kilkishen (see Cill Chisin). 
Kilmallock - - 70, n. 

Kilmore - - 69, n. 

Killoan - - 41, n. 

Kilrea - 58, 58, n., 59 

Kilrush - - 33 

Kilshannick - - 68, n. 

Kiltartan - 39, n., 40, n. 

Kinelarty - - 60, n. 

KinelFiacha - 17, n., 48, n 

Guaire - - 40, n. 

Kingsborough - 1 1 
Iving's County 9, 36, n., 46, n., 
47, n., 48, n., 82, n. 
Kinsale (see Dun Cearmna). 
Kinvara - - 40, n. 
Kippagh - - 68, n. 
Kirk - - 51, n. 
Ritchen-stuff - - 36, n. 
Kyley - - 5, n. 
Knight of Glyn 74, n„ 75, n, 
Kerry - 54, n. 

Knock Abbey - 


51, n. 
5, n. 























, n., 








Leim Chongculainn 




Leinster 7, 17, 33 



, 63, 


Leinstermen satirized - 


Leitrim 34, n., 35, 








Leix fseven septs of) • 









Limerick 6, 18, 





75,n.,76, 76 

, n., 






, 6 




Lissadill (see Lios-an-doill) 




Loch Ce, 













Sheelan - 








Londonderry 56, n., 





Longford 4, n., 






, n. 



Loop Head 






Lough Corrib - 








Key - 




Mask - 


Neagh - 



Rea 9, 

















Louth 51, n., 







Lughaidh Dcalbh-aodh 








TAGE. . 



Meg Samhradhain 

51, n. 

Mac Adara 


60, n, | 





17, 22 I 





60, n. 


67, n. 





5, n. 

Auliffe - 


66, n. 

Moin Ui Dhomhnaill - 


Cann 24, 

62, 63, 

63, n. 

Monaghan 49, »., 50, 

n., 84, n. 

Cochlain - 


47, n. 


78, n. 




Mount Congreve 


Carthy 10, 13, 

15, 24, 

26, 27, 


47, n. 

65 n., 66 n 

., 68 n. 

, 74, n. 

Mountjoy, 22, 55, n., 57 

n., 81, 7i. 




Moghruith (the Druid) 

64, n. 


38, n., 

64, 65 

Movne (Abbey of) 

44, n. 

Diarmada - 


65 n. 



Donough - 

66, 66, 

n., 67 

Munster, 12, 18, 22, n 

., 33, 61, 

Ealathan - 



n„ 64, n., 64, 65, 65, 

n., 73, 7i., 




78, 7i., 79, 

n., 82, n. 



17, 72. 





3, 10 

Muintir Bhaire 10, 

11, 12, 14 



54, n. 

Eolais 34, 

35, 35, n. 



72, n. 


34, n. 



60, n. 





50, n. 


54, n. 

Rernans - 


52, 72. 

Mullagh - 62, 62, n., 6', 

Mahon 48, 49, 

49, n., 

50, n., 


62, n. 


79, n. 

, 81, n. 

Mur-mic-an-D uinn 


Namara 8, 

35, n., 

78, 7i., 


5, n. 

79, n. 

81, n. 

82, 7i. 


42, 72. 

— — Tighernans 


52, n. 

Muskerry - 64, 

65, 65, 72. 



81, n. 

Myan Leay ' 

23, 72. 

William 44, n. 

, 76, 77 

, 77, n. 

Myathlagh, rirer 

23, 72. 



17, n. 







12, 23, 72. 




Madden (Dr. E. R.) 

37, n. 








51, 71. 

Neidhe - i 5 

16, 17, 22 



64, n. 


44, n. 



61, 72. 


66, 72. 



35, n, 


45, 72. 


52, n. 

, 53, n. 

IsTiall (of the Xine Hosta- 



71, n. 


3, 17, n. 

Magh Ealla 

68, 69, 

69, n. 




40, 40, n, 4i 


40, 72. 


34, n 

.,35, n. 

Ny-Briain, Honora 

41, 72. 


44, 44 

, n., 45 

Maine - 3, 37. n 

, 54, n. 




69, n. 


52, 52 

, 53, n. 

O'Brien 3, 6, 10, 21 

22, 78, 72. 


33, 37 

, 37, n. 

79, 72. 



85, n. 



Maurice (Archbishop of 

; O'B^rnes, 12, 44, 44, n. 

45, 45, 72. 




O'Cahans í 

56, 57 

Mayo 9, 42, n 

, 44 ; n. 

, 47, ». 


75, 72. 

Meath 9. 52, n. 

, 56, n. 

, 84, n. 

O'Cailaghan, 68, 68, n. 

, 69, 69, 72. 




0'Canty - - 26, 26, n. 

O'Carraidh - 48, n. 

O'CarroU - 82, 82, n., 83 

O'Cathlains - - 75, n, 

O'Ceallaigh (0'Kelly) - 37, n. 
O'Clerj . . 3, 10 

O'Coileain - .. 74, n . 

O'Coinin's wife - 70, n. 

O'Connell - - 33 

(DanielM.P.) 71, n. 

O'Connor, 8, 25, 36, 36, n., 37, 

38, n., 46, 46, n., 47, 47, n., 

73, n. 

0'CriUy . 58, 58, n„ 59 

O'Croinin - - 32 

0'Crowley - - 58, n. 

0'Daly, 3, 4, 4, n„ 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 

10, 10, n., 11, 12, 13, 14, 22, 

26, 27, 27, n., 28, 33, 34, 35, 

49, n. f 54, n., 61, n., 71, rc., 

82, 82, n. 

O'Dea's - - 79, n. 

O Diomain - 58, 58, n., 59 

0'Dogherty 54, 55, 55, n., 64, n. 

O'Donnell, 6, 23, 54, n., 55, n. 

13, 14, 15, 75, n. 

70, 71, 71, n., 72 n. 

- 3, 64, n. 

O Donovan 





O Duunes 




0'Fogarty's Tomb 




O'Hara, 22, 22, n 




Oireacht Aibhne, 


50, 50, n., 51 

46, n. 

46. n., 47, n. 

25, 26 

42, 43, 43, n, 

- 71, n. 
78, n. 


- 79, n. 
58, 59, 59, n. 
62, 62, n., 63 

17, 22, 24, n. 
56. 56, n., 57 

Ui Chathain, 56, n., 

51, n. 
Oirghialla - 49, n., 62, n. 

Oilioll Olum - - 82, n. 

O'Ivanes - 56, n., 57, n. 

O'Reeffe, 14, 26, n„ 66, 66, n., 
67, 67, n. 
0'Kelly, 8, 37, n., 38, n., 41, n. 
0'Kennedy - - 74, n. 

Old Parish - 5, n. 

O'Maddens - 37, n., 40, n. 
Omagh - - 57, n. 





82, n. 


48, n. 


82, n. 


43, n. 

O'Meagher, 23, 33 ; 81, n., 84, 84, 

n., 85 
O'Meara - _ 28, n. 

0'Molloys - 48, n. 

O'More 20, n., 25, 47, n., 81, n. 
O'Mulderg - 82, 83, 84, n. 
0'Mulcreevys - 75, n. 

O'Neals - . 73, n. 

O'Neale - - 61, n. 

O'Neill - 8, 9, 24 

Oneilland - - 63, n. 

0'Quigleys - - 59, n. 

O'Quins - - 3, 79, n. 

0'Rahilly - 32, 32, n. 

0'ReiUy, 9, 13, 14, 50, 51, 51, n., 

52, n. 
0'Roddys - - 34, n. 

Orior - 62, 62, n„ 63 

Ormonde, 25, 29, n., 81 n., 85, n., 

86, n. 
0'Rourke, 36, n., 51, n., 52, n., 

84, n. 
Orrery 69, »,, 70, 70, n., 71 

0'Shaughnessy, 40, n., 41, n. 

Ossory - 29, n„ 82, n. 

O'SulUvan, 11, 64, n., 65, n., 7% n. 



59, n, 










54, n. 

Plebeian (Death of a) - 


Pobble O'Callaghan 


68, n. 




hanging of three 



25, n. 

, 74, n. 

Poor gentlemen 


72, n. 



64, n. 



74, ». 


68, 69 

69, n. 



75, n. 


Queen Elizabeth 


11. 18 

Queen's County 

46, n. 

, 51, n. 

Quern, its use 


82, n. 







Radetski . . 73, n. 

Raghnailt Ny Brien . 8 

Rathdrum . . 45, n. 

Raithin . . 17, n. 

Rathkeale . 74, 75, 75, n. 

Rayrnond le Gros . 72, n. 

Reelcs, 42, n„ 72, 72, n., 73 

Relics . 34, 34, n., 35 

Reynolds . . 35, n. 

Rhymers . . 18 

Rickards . . 38, 39 

Roches . 64, 64, n., 65 

Rochingham . .38, n. 

Roddy, Thady, curious 

letter of . . 34, n. 

Roe, Vale of the . 56, n. 

Rome . . . 15 

Roscommon 36, n., 38, n., 43, n , 
" *■ 73, n. 

Roscorr ... 17, n. 

Rourks . " -. 73, n. 

Samhradhain . 50, 

Sandal's Dun . 42, 

Satire, its evil effects . 
Savadge 60, 60, n., 61, 61, 

Scarva . . 51, 

Scully . . 85, 

Siol Adhaimh . 54, 

Anmchadha, 36, 36,j*., 


Sliabh Bladhma . 46, 

Sligo . 5, 22, 59, 

Shamrocks, food for the Irish, 
52, n., 70, n., 80, 
Shannon, 46, 47, 73, n., 78, 
Shea , . 5, 

Sheep's Head 

Sheridans . . 48, 

Shrovetide . . 34, 

St. Aenghus Ceile De 23, 

— Aidan . .59, 

— Caillin . . 34, 

— Corban . . 39, 

— Columbkille 17, 17, n., 42, 

— Dachonna . . 43, 

— Guasacht . . 49, 

— Molua . . 50, 

— O'Suanaigh . 17, 

— Patrick, 10, 42, n., 49, 

50, n., 59, n., 85, n., 86, 
Step-mothers . 35, 








Teallach Dunchadha 

. Eathach 

Teffia (see Teabhtha) . 
Thibbot of the Brandy 
Thomond, 6, 21, 78, n. 
, Tirconnell 
Tipperary, 23, 33, 76, 

84, n., 85, n., 86, n'. 

murderous character of 

the men of 86, n. 
Tonregye . . 62, n. 

Tuatha-de • Dananns 







i 58, 






'. 52, 






, 79, 79, 








. 6, 54, 


n., 81, 







39, n 
29, 55, n. 

81, n. 

51, n. 

52, n. 
69, n. 
50, n. 
57, n. 


Ui Deaghaidh . 82, n. 

— Riagain . . 46, n. 

Uister 8, 33, 48, 49, 59, n., 60, 
n., 63, n., 73, n. 
Umhall . . 43, n. 

Ursina . . 15 







Waterford5, n., 15 n., 17, n. 

West Ballyrune 

Westmeath, 3, 5, 17, 17, n.. 

Wexford 5, n., 25, n., 

Whaley (Dr.) 


White Enight 

86, n. 

53, n. 

47, n., 

54, n. 
74, n. 
27, n. 

70, n. 
44, n. 



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